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Passions in Poetry

Young English

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Essorant
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0 posted 11-26-2005 10:39 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant


Young English


Young English was that written and spoken in Great Britain before the twelfth century.  It was the most phonological and inflective stage of the English language.

The two most important points about learning Young English are becoming most familiar with 1. Letters and Sounds: and 2. The Inflections.






Terminology "Young" and "Old"

In this work I say Young English for the conventional "Old English" And Old English for the conventional "Modern English"
This is not meant to confuse readers, even though it may be a bit confusing at first.  But it is meant to observe the truth that English before the twelfth century was in its youth and early years, taking its first fresh steps in history.  And that the english language today, come down from a long life and evolution, over a thousand years, makes it accuratly old.
Indeed English today is like an old man.  The facts we have from earlier english are like pictures of that old man when he was younger.  Just as an old man should be called young
in a picture in which he was young, even though he is presently old, I believe the English language should be called young in the "picture" and context in which it was young in comparison to such a long evolution thereafter, by which we may acknowledge how old the english language presently really is.



Part One


Letters and Sounds

Front Vowels  i, y, e, *                         Back Vowels u, o, a
(short, long)
  
i: did, deed                                  
y: Fr.* tu, Fr. lune            u: put, moon
e: get, play                    o: not, bone  
: cat, bad                     a: hot, law


Vowel-Pairs: "Dipthongs" (Gr. di "two" + phthongos "sound")



ea    `    Dipthongs may be pronounced as the  
eo     >   vowels  suggests.  But always
io    /    as one syllable, not two.
ie
    
      



* ligurature is called "ash".
*Y was only a vowel in YE (Young English).
*Fr. = French
*Y is somewhat like i and u as one vowel sound.  A high, front and rounded vowel.




Consonants

The letters not listed below are all used as in Old English (OE).


c: As ch in cheap by front vowels   f: As v in seven between vowels.
   As k in keep by back vowels         As f in five initially or finally.
    
g: As y in yelp by front vowels     h: As h in horse intially.
   As g in good by back vowels         As ch in loch medially or finally.

r:     "OE r initially may well have been strongly trilled
       as in Mod.Scots, but the same symbol was used for
       the fricative ('burred') sound in some positions,
       notably before consonants and finally (heard 'hard',
       scur 'shower') - the r-sound of much American speech
       and heard also in southwestern dialects of England."

               - Quirk and Wrenn's An Old English Grammar

s:    As z in zoo between vowels.
      As s in sing initially or finally.
*:   As th of father between vowels.
      As th of thick initially or finally
:    The same as .

Consonant-Pairs

sc:  As sh of ship.    cg:  As dge of edge.    cc:  As ch in child.




* Sometimes when by a front vowel letters g or c are still g (as in god) and k ( as in kite).  This is because a back vowel was originally there, but by sound change became front.  The vowel changed, but the consonants stayed the same.  Thus g in gylden is the same as g in golden, c in cyning is as k in king, cearo is as c in care.  Forms in old english may help direct our pronunciation.
* Runic "thorn," and "eth" -- a d with a line thro it-- are interchangeably used for the sound spelt in YE as th. The uppercases are and .
* j and v are not found in Young English; and k, q, and z are found only rarely.
* There are no silent letters.



Try pronouncing the words in the following groups.
Long vowels are underlined, and short vowels are left unmarked.



ac     oak         feoh     fee          lif      Life
a     oath        fisc     fish         Lufu     Love
beadu  battle      ft      vat          middg   midday
bodig  body        gimm     gem          miht     might
cild   child       heafod   head         niht     night
cniht  knight      hit      it           nosyrl  nostril
cwen   queen       hlfdige lady         ofer     over
cyning king        hlaford  lord         oer     other
dg    day         hund     hound        run      rune
dl    deal        ic       I            Sfern   Severn
eorl   earl        lar      lore         treow    tree
engel  angel       leoht    light        tunge    tongue

         law        gar        spear      meotod    creator
ling    prince     garsecg    sea        mere      sea
ar        honour     hals       neck       rd       advice
bearn     child      hlend     Savior     rod       cross
boda      messenger  here       army       scop      poet
bot       remedy     hige       mind       tungol    star
drihten   lord       lce       doctor     eaw      virtue
ea        river      leode      people     egn      thane
ege       terror     leo       poetry     eow      slave
ellen     courage    lyft       air        wen       expectation
feorh     life       mg        kinsman    wer       man
frea      lord       mgen      might      wyrd      fate
eoh       horse      mam       treasure   wynn      joy            
guma      man        med        reward     y        wave


       





Line of Descent



Indo-European_____________________________
   |               |           |          |
   |            Italic       Celtic      etc.
Germanic__________________
   |                      |
   |                East Germanic
Northwest Germanic________
   |                      |
   |                North Germanic
West Germanic_________________
   |              |           |
   |          Irminonic     Istvaeonic
Ingvaeonic___________
   |                 |
   |             Low German
Anglo-Frisian________
   |                 |
   |           Young Frisian
Young English
   |
   |
Middle English
   |
   |
Old English

 



Essorant
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1 posted 11-26-2005 10:42 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Part Two

The Inflections


A. Nouns


There are four main cases in YE:


Nominative: subject and activity.  (The Queen...)
Accusative: object and passivity.  (kissed the King.)
Genitive: possessive. (The King's Queen...)
Dative: indirect object. (gave kisses to the King)

And three genders: masculine, neuter, and feminine.

For all of these there are special inflections or word-endings given to words to indicate them.  Thus,  hund (hound) and hundes (hound's), hundas (hounds), etc

Se "the" and es "this"

When Se "the" or es "this" accompanies a noun it also shall change its shape accordingly:

1. To the gender that is the same as that of the noun.
2. To the case that is the same as the noun.
3. To the number (singular or plural) that is the same as the noun.

Thus by the condition of a noun being:

masculine + nominative + singular =  Se "the" or es "this"

But:

neuter + nominative + singular =  t "the" or is "this"

(t whence "that" comes is simply a variant of "the")


"Forty-five per cent of all the nouns that the student will learn from his reading will be masculine, nearly four-fifths of these will have gen.sg [genitive singular] in -es and nom.acc.pl. [nominative and accusative plural] in -as, about one fifth will have both gen.sg. and nom.acc.pl in -an, and there will be a few very common nouns of irregular pattern.
Some thirty per cent of the nouns he meets will be feminine, five-sixths of these will have gen.sg. in -e and nom.acc.pl. in -a or -e, less than one-sixth will have both gen.sg. and nom.acc. pl. in -an, again, he will find a small balance of irregulars.
Finally, twenty-five per cent of the nouns will be neuter, almost all having gen.sg. in -es and nom.acc.pl. in -u or without ending."


- Quirk and Wrenn's An Old English Grammar
                    
The most important inflections are:

 

                                 Singular

    Masculine               Neuter                   Feminine

                Inflexion                   Inflexion                         Inflexion    

N.  Se/es        -       t/is       -        Seo/eos      - or u
A.  one/isne    -       t/is       -        a/as          e
G.  s/isses    es      s/isses    es       re/isse      e
D.  m/issum    e       m/issum    e        re/isse      e

                                 Plural 

N.  a/as        as      a/as      - or u     a/as          a
A.  a/as        as      a/as      - or u     a/as          a
G.  ara/issa    a       ara/issa    a        ara/issa      a
D.  m/issum    um      m/issum    um       m/issum      um


             


So by the "inflexion" list above,  we may "translate" the words into the cases and their inflexions (word-endings) thus:

Nominative: subject and activity.  (Seo Cwen "The Queen"...)
Accusative: object and passivity.  (kissed one cyning "the King")
Genitive: possessive. (s cyninges "the king's" Queen...)
Dative: indirect object. (gave kisses to m cyninge"The King")
 

Essorant
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2 posted 11-26-2005 10:44 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

In an Young English Dictionary

Here is part for Cwen as it is shown in an Young English/Anglo-Saxon dictionary: The Bosworth-Toller's Anglo Saxon Dictionary




*the main noun heading is always the nominative, as cwen.

*The f. below cwen lets us know it follows the feminine inflexions.

Essorant
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3 posted 11-26-2005 10:46 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Leof Cyningas and Cwena,


Please feel free to ask questions, make additions, or amend anything;
I hope this may be an interactive grammar. You may be as loud as you wish in this "classroom"  

Essorant
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4 posted 11-26-2005 10:48 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

(These responses are carried over from earlier edition of this thread.)


Not A Poet said:

Really nice work here, Ess. But I'm afraid I have enough trouble with plain old modern American English. Of course, some might call it Okie    


Soleil Noir said:

Ess, I would love for you to come and give me lessons in person.  I'm more of a see and say student - hands on and all that.  I can read, of course, but I need to hear as well.

This is a very informative thread, however, and you may find me in here asking questions.  Also, please check your e-mail!
 

Essorant
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5 posted 11-26-2005 10:53 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Pete,

Perhaps you may overcome those problems in learning Young English.  


Soleil Noir,

Thanks          

 
Essorant
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6 posted 11-26-2005 10:55 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

                                           C



    Soft Ċ "ch"                    Hard C "k"


  


           each            ilca            same  
hwilċ         which           coss m.         kiss  
swilċ         such            seoloc m.       silk
liċ n.        body            cumbol n.       banner
geliċ         like            beacen n.       beacon
heafonliċ     heavenly        facn n.         crime
miċel         great           tacn n.         token
ċeorl m.      churl           cnosl n.        race
ċild n.       child           camphad m.      warfare
ċiriċe f.     church          wedlac n.       wedlock
meċe m.       sword           witelac n.      punishment
riċe n.       kingdom         boc f.          book    
lċe m.       physician       wocor f.        increase
ċeaster f.    city            costung f.      temptation
sprċ f.      speech          cwen f.         woman  
ċierm m.      shouting        wolcen n.       cloud
ċierr m.      turn            wucu f.         weak    
drenċ m.      drink           clyne n.        lump
stenċ m.      stench          ceol m.         ship
geswinċ n.    toil            cwicu           alive
aglċa m.     monster         meolc f.        milk      
beċe f.       beech           folc n.         people
ċealf n       calf            naca m.         boat
reċed m.      building        seoc            sick
ċeald         cold            deofolcund      devilish
strċ         severe          nacod           naked
eċe           eternal         cu n.           cow
swiċe         deceitful       weorc n.        work
biċċe f.      bitch           cyning m.       king
ċidere m.     chider          cneow n.        knee
ċinn n.       chin            catt m.         cat
ċeaf n.       chaff           cynn n.         race
ċen m.        torch           cene            keen
wiċċa m.      sorcerer        cnif m.         knife
wiċċe f.      sorceress       ac f.           oak
ynċe m.       inch            crft m.        skill



      



Some word Equations:


a "ever"  +   liċ  "like"   =  lċ "each"

hwa "who"   +  liċ  "like"   = hwilċ "which"

swa "so"   +  liċ  "like"  = swilċ "such"



Essorant
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7 posted 11-26-2005 10:57 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

A Specification about G

In part one the two most contrastive sounds of g were noted:  a hard g sound as in good and a soft ġ sound that is like OE y.

But another sound is represented by the graph g as well, that is less distinct from the hard "g" than the soft "y" sound.  

I think it may be roughly described as:

*A weaker hard g sound with a w-like quality, found medially by back vowels ( u, o, a ) in a word.

Thus dragan to draw;  dagung f. daying, dawn; dagian to dawn, to daw; dagas m.  days;
lagu f. law; sagu f.  I. saw (a saying)  II. saw (the tool).

But it shall not be a major mistake to pronounce this consonant fully as a hard g.


In sum: 2 main qualities

G = 1. Hard G
          -hard "g" (at start and before backvowel)
          -hard w-like "g" (anywhere after backvowel)
       and  
       2. Soft Ġ  
          -a soft "y" (anywhere by front vowel)
 
Essorant
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8 posted 11-26-2005 10:58 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

                                           G


    


     Soft Ġ "y"                       Hard G "g"
                            
          
ġiese          yes             gast m.         spirit
ġea            yea             gat f.          goat
ġe             ye              glof f.         glove
ġefera m.      companion       god             good
fġer          fair            God m.          God
weġ m.         way             guma m.         man
enġel m.       angel           galdor n.       incantation
ġ n.          egg             Engle m.        The English
ġiefu f.       gift            Englisc         English
forġiefnes f.  forgiveness     godcundnes f.   Divinity
ġear n.        year            gls n.         glass
ġiedd n.       song            eage n.         eye
reġn m.        rain            gar m.          spear
ġeong          young           gaderung f.     gathering
eġn m.        thane           gamen n.        game
huniġ n.       honey           beag m.         ring
ġiest  m.      guest           beorg m.        mountain
ġearu          yare            tunge f.        tongue
tweġen         twain           gram            angry
ġeweorc n.     work            gleomu f.       splendour
eġe m.         fear            goldbeorht      goldbright
sweġl n.       sky             dugu f.        retainers
maniġ          many            boga m.         bow
f.        maiden          feolaga m.      fellow
wiġ n.         war             tungol n.       star
ġimm m.        gem             gld            bright


   

Essorant
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9 posted 11-26-2005 11:02 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Serenity said:

could you possibly expound upon rules concerning meter and old english?

(thou hast opened a can of worms?)

particularly, I'm looking for rules of pronunciation in sometimes convenient apostrophe:

For example, the word: "beloved"

can be read as having two or three syllables.

My point is, though, that a writer can acheive a certain meter by the removal of the letter "e" replaced by an apostrophe:

"belov'd" - distinctly two syllables--as opposed to belovED, yes? certainly three...

Is there a rule for this?
 
Essorant
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10 posted 11-26-2005 11:04 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

You need not worry about those things in Young English (formerly "Old English").  There are no apostrophes or "silent letters"

Iċ eom "I am" is always iċ eom, never iċ'm.  

Iċ lufode "I loved" is always iċ lufode, never iċ luf'de.

It makes it a bit simpler, which I think is a good thing    
 
Essorant
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11 posted 11-26-2005 11:05 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Not A Poet said:

As I understand it, the apostrophe was a tool from around the Shakespeare era. It was used like you said, to make a syllable sort of disappear for metric purposes. I don't know for sure but I suspect the language was changing at the time so that both pronunciations were acceptable. The apostrophe was a convention in poetry that directed the reader as to how the writer intended a word to be spoken. By reading some poetry from the era, one can pretty well deduce the intended purpose.

Essorant
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12 posted 11-26-2005 11:06 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Indeed; Dialects probably differed quite a bit back in Shakespeare's time, some with the -e- pronounced in ed, and some with the -e- not pronounced.  
It is hard to be sure though where the dialects actually were and where it is simply a metrical device, or observance of antiquity in the poetry.
I wonder why there was no love <---> lov' alternation though.  Perhaps that pronunciation was already fallen off before the apostrophe came into use.

Essorant
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13 posted 11-26-2005 11:08 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Here are some good points about meter and those apostrophewords in early Old English (formerly "Modern English").



"Some fudge-factors are especially prevalent in poetry of the 16th-17th centuries and later poetry that imitates it as a traditional archaism:

a. Words ending in -er or -en like ever, never, or heaven, given, are often treated as one syllable: "heav'n." In older texts they are sometimes spelled that way, too.

b. Up until the 20th century, very often poets would, as an archaism, expect the -ed verbal ending to be pronounced as a full syllable (as in the adjectives naked, learned, and winged today). When this was the practice, if the ending did not make a syllable (i.e., sounded as it does nowadays in words like "saved"), it would often be spelled with an apostrophe: sav'd, or even, if it had a t sound, with a t: "they past before me" or "they pass'd before me" for "they passed before me." Modern editions sometimes use the modern method: if the -ed is to take a syllable, the e has an accent over it: "the wingd Victory." The reader must look carefully to see whether the text at hand follows the older procedure, where all -ed endings are full syllables, and the nonsyllabic ending is spelled -'d, or the more modern practice, where -ed usually does not sound as a syllable, and the syllabic ending is spelled -d.

c. When two vowels are next to each other, they can often be scanned either as two syllables or one (offbeat) syllable, depending on what the poet needs for the meter. In words that have a u before another vowel, it may be treated like a w: unusual, "un-U-zhwal" (3 syllables) or "un-U-zhu-AL" (4 syllables). I may be treated as a y: proverbial: "pro-VERB-yal" or "pro-VERB-i-AL."

This effect may also occur between an unaccented vowel ending one word and another one beginning the next word. This fudge-factor effect is known as "elision" the disappearing syllable is "elided" and one of the commonest instances of it is in the vowel of the before the unstressed initial vowel of the noun modified by the article. Sometimes Renaissance poets actually wrote this elision as an apostrophe: "Th'expense." Donne sometimes signals it by an apostrophe following the first vowel (and thus between the two joined words), perhaps to suggest a vowel glide rather than the complete disappearance of the first of the two vowels. Another instance of elision, fairly common in Donne, is the treatment of a final unstressed y (as in the suffix -ly) as the beginning of a glide into the unstressed vowel of the next word, so that both vowels together form one syllable.

d. Occasionally, in a word of three or more syllables, a syllable between the main stressed syllable and one with secondary stress may be ignored, especially if the syllable includes at least one consonant that is a continuant (and especially if the continuant is voiced). For instance, invisible, in the third line of the passage cited above from George Chapman's translation of Homer's Iliad, is treated as having three syllables: invis'ble, "in-VIZ-buhl." This contraction of a syllable occurs frequently in ordinary speech and is called, in technical parlance, syncope ("SIN-ko-Pee").

...


From: Meter in English Verse


[http://www.amittai.com/prose/meter.php]

Essorant
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14 posted 11-26-2005 11:09 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Inflections in: - or u
        1. In Neuter's nominative and accusative plural
        and
        2. In Feminine's nominative singular.


Sometimes syll'ble has vowel long
Sometimes has consonants that throng
Like -o- in bone, -nd in end;
To this never a -u append.
But when ye shall short vowel see
Where only one consonant may be
Like -i- and -t in wit, my friend,
To this ye may a -u append.
Thus word is "word", and "words" word too
For -rd does not want a -u!
But scip is "ship", scipu is "ships"
Now -ip rightly a -u  grips!
That is plural in neuter's realm;
And singular at feminine's helm:
Lar is "lore" with long -a- in view
Ġiefu is gift, given to -u.



Word n. "word" and Scip n. "ship"           Lar f. "lore" and  Ġiefu f. "gift"
        


                                 Singular

                Neuter                           Feminine

                         Inflexion                                      Inflexion    

N.   t/is      word    |  scip        Seo/eos      lar   |  ġiefu
A.   t/is      word    |  scip        a/as        lare  |  ġiefe
G.   s/isses   wordes  |  scipes      re/isse    lare  |  ġiefe
D.   m/issum   worde   |  scipe       re/isse    lare  |  ġiefe

                                 Plural 

N.   a/as       word    |  scipu       a/as        lara  |  ġiefa
A.   a/as       word    |  scipu       a/as        lara  |  ġiefa
G.   ara/issa   worda   |  scipa       ara/issa    lara  |  ġiefa
D.   m/issum   wordum  |  scipum      m/issum    larum |  ġiefum


Specification about the -u inflection

Where L = a long syllable whose rhyme has:
             -long vowel + consonant
             or
             -short vowel + two consonants.

And S =   a short syllable whose rhyme has:
             -short vowel + one consonant,

Conventionally:

L = + no u
S + S = + no u
L + S = + u
S = +u



*In phonology, rhyme is the vowel of a syllable and everything to its right.  See here
*two S are equivelent to one L.
*adjectival inflections shall follow this too.

 
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Nouns (general outline)


1. The Main "Strong" Inflections

              - Variations/Differences
            
2. The "Weak" -an Inflections

3. The Irregular






1.  The Main "Strong" inflections.
  

Masculine

Most masculine nouns follow the paradigm/pattern shown below. It may be taken as a "standard" or "ideal" for the masculine nouns. Old English (formerly "Modern English") has its possessive 's  and plural -s respectively from the "-es" and "-as" of this inflexion-group.



N    -      cyning    "king"            bocere   "scribe"
A    -      cyning    "king"            bocere   "scribe"
G    es     cyninges  "king's"          boceres  "scribe's"
D    e      cyninge   "(to the) king"   bocere   "(to the) scribe"

N    as     cyningas  "kings"           boceras  "scribes"
A    as     cyningas  "kings"           boceras  "scribes"
G    a      cyninga   "kings' "         bocera   "scribes'"
D    um     cyningum  "(to the) kings"  bocerum  "(to the) scribes"
  

                   "day"             mearh   "horse"
                   "day"             mearh   "horse"
            dġes     "day's"           meares  "horse's"
            dġe      "(to the) day"    meare   "(to the) horse"
  
            dagas     "days"            mearas  "horses"
            dagas     "days"            mearas  "horses"
            daga      "days' "          meara   "horses'"
            dagum     "(to the) days"   mearum  "(to the) horses"
 



            wer       "man"             anc    "thought"
            wer       "man"             anc    "thought"
            weres     "man's"           ances  "thought's"
            were      "(to the) man"    ance   "(to the) thought"
  
            weras     "men"             ancas  "thoughts"
            weras     "men"             ancas  "thoughts"
            wera      "men's "          anca   "thoughts'"
            werum     "(to the) men"    ancum  "(to the) thoughts"

  
 

s cyninges mearas "the king's horses"
  \  /           |
  Genitive      Nominative
(singular)      (plural)


as weras  "these men"
|    /
Nominative (plural)



to m were  "to the man"
     \  /
   Dative (singular)



ara bocera ancas "the scribes' thoughts"
  |    /       |
Genitive     Nominative (plural)
(plural)



On ara bocera ancum "in the scribes' thoughts"
     |    /       |
   Genitive     Dative
   (plural)     (plural)





- turns to a (a back vowel) if a following syllable has back vowel.  Thus in a syllable preceding inflections: -as, -a, -um.
- if there an e (as in bocere) or h (as in mearh) these are dropped in cases where inflection needs to be added.  Thus bocere <-> boceras, mearh <-> mearas.
- The dative case is almost always used with prepositions, On "in", fter "after", t "at" be "by, beside" betweonan "between", butan "without" of "from" to "to, for"


Masculine (cont'd)
  
        Variations/differences
            The following variations/differences occur:
    
        
        a) Some words have -e instead of -as in the plural.



            stede    "place"            wine   "friend"
            stede    "place"            wine   "friend"
            stedes   "place's"          wines  "friend's"
            stede    "(to the) place"   wine   "(to the) friend"
  
            stede    "places"           wine   "friends"
            stede    "places"           wine   "friends"
            steda    "places' "         wina   "friends'"
            stedum   "(to the) places"  winum  "(to the) friends"

              
        -   Many groups/tribes/nations have this -e. These words have only plural forms.
 


            Engle    "English"           Dene   "Danes"
            Engle    "English"           Dene   "Danes"
            Engla    "English's"         Dena   "Danes''"
            Englum   "(to the) English"  Denum  "(to the) Danes"
 

            Seaxe    "Saxons"            Myrċe   "Mercians"
            Seaxe    "Saxons"            Myrċe   "Mercians"
            Seaxna   "Saxons' "          Myrċna  "Mercians'"
            Seaxum   "(to the) Saxons"   Myrċum  "(to the) Mercians"
 



            Romane   "Romans"            Norhymbre  "Northumbrians"
            Romane   "Romans"            Norhymbre  "Northumbrians"
            Romana   "Romans' "          Norhymbra  "Northumbrians'"
            Romanum  "(to the) Romans"   Norhymbrum "(to)Northumbrians"
 



        -   Also:
 


            ylde     "men"               ylfe   "elves"
            ylde     "men"               ylfe   "elves"
            ylda     "men's "            ylfa   "elves'"
            yldum    "(to the) men"      ylfum  "(to the) elves"
 



            leode    "people"          
            leode    "people"          
            leoda    "people's "          
            leodum   "(to the) people"  
    


        Any words with the suffixes -ere, -scipe, -dom, -had, -o/-a, -ing/ling
        also take the masculine inflections:  
 


            godspellere   "gospeller"       ġeferscipe   "friendship"
            godspellere   "gospeller"       ġeferscipe   "friendship"
            godspelleres  "gospeller's"     ġeferscipes  "friendship's"
            godspellere   "(to) gospeller"  ġeferscipe   "(to)friendship"
  
            godspelleras  "gospellers"      ġeferscipas  "friendships"
            godspelleras  "gospellers"      ġeferscipas  "friendships"
            godspellera   "gospellers' "    ġeferscipa   "friendships'"
            godspellerum  "(to) gospellers" ġeferscipum  "(to)friendships"
 


            ealddom       "age"             ġeogohad    "youthhood"
            ealddom       "age"             ġeogohad    "youthhood"
            ealddomes     "age's"           ġeogohades "youthhood's"
            ealddome      "(to the) age"    ġeogohad    "(to) youthhood"
  
            ealddomas     "ages"            ġeogohadas  "youthhoods"
            ealddomas     "ages"            ġeogohadas  "youthhoods"
            ealddoma      "ages' "          ġeogohada   "youthoods'"
            ealddomum     "(to the) ages"   ġeogohadum  "(to) youthoods"
 


            hunto       "hunting"          eling    "prince"
            hunto       "hunting"          eling    "prince"
            huntoes     "hunting's"        elinges  "prince's"
            huntoe     "(to the) hunting"  elinge   "(to the) prince"
  
            huntoas     "huntings"         elingas  "princes"
            huntoas     "huntings"         elingas  "princes"
            huntoa      "huntings' "       elinga   "princes'"
            huntoum  "(to the) huntings"   elingum  "(to the) princes"


          Finally, every compound that ends with a masculine word follows the masculine endings as well:

              word n. + crft m. = wordcrft m.


            wordcrft       "wordcraft"          
            wordcrft       "wordcraft"          
            wordcrftes     "wordcraft's"        
            wordcrft       "(to the) wordcraft"

            wordcrftas     "wordcrafts"        
            wordcrftas     "wordcrafts"        
            wordcrfta      "wordcrafts' "      
            wordcrftum     "(to the) wordcrafts"



-The -na in Seaxna and Myrċna is a "piece" from the Weak Declension.  We shall see that a little later below.
 
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In sum: [So far]

1. The main "Strong" Inflections
  
     Masculine Nouns

          -as  Most words take -as in plural: wer "man" --> weras "men"

          -e   Some words take -e in plural: stede "place" --> stede "places"
             \
                Tribal/group names that have only plural forms: Seaxe "Saxons"
        
          - Suffixes -ere, -scipe, -dom, -had, -o/-a, and -ing/ling take masculine endings.

          - compounds ending in masculine words take masculine endings.



-Words that should have -e in plural show up often enough with -as too, imitating the majority.  E.g. wine "friends" or winas "friends"  Thus there is some flexibility in the inflection.
 

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The Main "Strong" inflections (cont'd)


Neuter

Neuter nouns' pattern differs from Masculine's only in (normally) having no inflection (after a long syllable) or taking a -u (after a short syllable) in Plural's Nominative and Accusative.  

Without -u.  



N    -          deor    "animal"            wif    "woman"
A    -          deor    "animal"            wif    "woman"
G    es         deores  "animal's"          wifes  "woman's"
D    e          deore   "(to the) animal"   wife   "(to the) woman"

N    "- or u"   deor    "animals"           wif    "women"
A    "- or u"   deor    "animals"           wif    "women"
G    a          deora   "animals'"          wifa   "women's"
D    um         deorum  "(to the) animals"  wifum  "(to the) women"
  
 


            ġear       "year"             feorh   "life"
            ġear       "year"             feorh   "life"
            ġeares     "year's"           feores  "life's"
            ġeare      "(to the) year"    feore   "(to the) life"
  
            ġear       "years"            feorh   "lives"
            ġear       "years"            feorh   "lives"
            ġeara      "years' "          feora   "lives'"
            ġearum     "(to the) years"   feorum  "(to the) lives"
  



            tungol     "star"             werod    "troop"
            tungol     "star"             werod    "troop"
            tungles    "star's"           werodes  "troop's"
            tungle     "(to the) star"    werode   "(to the) troop"
  
            tungol     "stars"            werod    "troops"
            tungol     "stars"            werod    "troops"
            tungla     "stars' "          weroda   "troops'"
            tunglum    "(to the) stars"   werodum  "(to the) troops"
  


With -u





            bod       "command"             fr    "journey"
            bod       "command"             fr    "journey"
            bodes     "command's"           fres  "journey's"
            bode      "(to the) command"    fre   "(to the) journey"
  
            bodu      "commands"            faru   "journeys"
            bodu      "commands"            faru   "journeys"
            boda      "commands' "          fara   "journeys'"
            bodum     "(to the) commands"   farum  "(to the) journeys"
  
  



            ġewrit    "writing"             hof    "dwelling"
            ġewrit    "writing"             hof    "dwelling"
            ġewrites  "writing's"           hofes  "dwelling's"
            ġewrite   "(to the) writing"    hofe   "(to the) dwelling"
  
            ġewritu   "writings"            hofu   "dwellings"
            ġewritu   "writings"            hofu   "dwellings"
            ġewrita   "writings' "          hofa   "dwellings'"
            ġewritum "(to the) writings"    hofum  "(to the) dwellings"
  



            heafod    "head"                yrel    "hole"
            heafod    "head"                yrel    "hole"
            heafdes   "head's"              yrles   "hole's"
            heafde    "(to the) head"       yrle    "(to the) hole"
  
            heafdu    "heads"               yrlu    "holes"
            heafdu    "heads"               yrlu    "holes"
            heafda    "heads' "             yrla    "holes'"
            heafdum   "(to the) heads"      yrlum   "(to the) holes"

Words that end with an -e take (normally) a -u in plural as well:



            riċe      "kingdom"             spere   "spear"
            riċe      "kingdom"             spere   "spear"
            riċes     "kingdom's"           speres  "spear's"
            riċe      "(to the) kingdom"    spere   "(to the) spear"
  
            riċu      "kingdoms"            speru   "spears"
            riċu      "kingdoms"            speru   "spears"
            riċa      "kingdoms' "          spera   "spears'"
            riċum     "(to the) kingdoms"   sperum  "(to the) spears"


All words with suffix -lac are neuter and do not have -u in plural.
But neuter words with the suffix -en/-enn, always (normally) have a -u.  Thus:



           reaflac     "robbery"            mġden   "maiden"
           reaflac     "robbery"            mġden   "maiden"
           reaflaces   "robbery's"          mdġenes "maiden's"
           reaflace    "(to the) robbery"   mġdene  "(to the) maiden"
  
           reaflac     "robberies"          mġdenu   "maidens"
           reaflac     "robberies"          mġdenu   "maidens"
           reaflaca    "robberies' "        mġdena   "maidens'"
           reaflacum   "(to the) robberies" mġdenum "(to the)maidens"


Finally, any compound that ends in a neuter-word takes neuter endings:


              man m. + cynn n. = mancynn n.


            mancynn       "mankind"          
            mancynn       "mankind"          
            mancynnes     "mankind's"        
            mancynne       "(to the) mankind"

            mancynn       "mankinds"        
            mancynn       "mankinds"        
            mancynna      "mankinds' "      
            mancynnum     "(to the) mankinds"
     




Deor "Animal"

Word History: In various Middle English texts one finds a fish, an ant, or a fox called a der, the Middle English ancestor of our word deer. In its Old English form deor, our word referred to any animal, including members of the deer family, and continued to do so in Middle English, although it also acquired the specific sense a deer. By the end of the Middle English period, around 1500, the general sense had all but disappeared. Deer is a commonly cited example of a semantic process called specialization, by which the range of a word's meaning is narrowed or restricted. When Shakespeare uses the expression mice and rats, and such small deer for Edgar's diet in King Lear, probably written in 1605, we are not sure whether deer has the general or the specific sense.
It is interesting to note that the German word Tier, the cognate of English deer, still has the general sense of animal.
(from dictionary.com)


Riċe "Kingdom"

A similar word to Young English riċe "kingdom" is German Reich, also Old English rich, which all come from the same IE root: See here


Heafod --> Heafdu


Where did the -o- between the f and the d go?  

This is called syncope which happens fairly consistently with some words.  


Syncope (from dictionary.com):

The shortening of a word by omission of a sound, letter, or syllable from the middle of the word; for example, bos'n for boatswain.


Oft but not always (it is not a rule) a middle syllable that is short shall be omitted when an inflection is added to a twosyllabled word.  We see this usually when the first syllable is long (having long vowel or consonant-pair) as in heafod (with a long vowel).  There is no apostrophe for these syncopations, however, like in our Old English.   But the learner shall meet and become familiar with these and where they occur most as he reads more Young English.

 

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In sum: [Again]

1. The main "Strong" Inflections
  
     Neuter Nouns

          - or u in plural: word(long syllable)/ scip (short syllable) ---> word /scipu.

          - neuter words that end with -e take u in plural: riċe --> riċu.

          - -lac doesn't take a -u; but suffix -en/enn takes -u.

          - compounds ending in neuter words take neuter endings.
 

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The Main "Strong" inflections (cont'd)


Feminine

The following nouns are examples of feminines and how they most conventionally take inflexions.  


Without -u.  



N    "- or u"   rod    "cross"            eaxl   "shoulder"
A    e          rode   "cross"            eaxle  "shoulder"
G    e          rode   "cross's"          eaxle  "shoulder's"
D    e          rode   "(to the) cross"   eaxle  "(to the) shoulder"

N    a          roda   "crosses"          eaxla  "shoulders"
A    a          roda   "crosses"          eaxla  "shoulders"
G    a          roda   "crosses'"         eaxla  "shoulders'"
D    um         rodum  "(to the) crosses" eaxlum "(to the) shoulders"
  
 



            sibb      "kinship"         wynn     "joy"
            sibbe     "kinship"         wynne    "joy"
            sibbe     "kinship's"       wynne    "joy's"
            sibbe     "(to) kinship"    wynne    "(to the) joy"
  
            sibba     "kinships"        wynna    "joys"
            sibba     "kinships"        wynna    "joys"
            sibba     "kinships' "      wynna    "joys'"
            sibbum    "(to) kinships"   wynnum   "(to the) joys"
  



            ċeaster   "city"            frofor    "comfort"
            ċeastre   "city"            frofre    "comfort"
            ċeastre   "city"            frofre    "comfort's"
            ċeastre   "(to the) city"   frofre    "(to the) comfort"
  
            ċeastra   "cities"          frofra    "comforts"
            ċeastra   "cities"          frofra    "comforts"
            ċeastra   "cities' "        frofra    "comforts'"
            ċeastrum  "(to the) cities" frofrum   "(to the) comforts"
  



            sawol     "soul"            stefn     "voice"
            sawle     "soul"            stefne    "voice"
            sawle     "soul's"          stefne    "voice's"
            sawle     "(to the) soul"   stefne    "(to the) voice"
  
            sawla     "souls"           stefna    "voices"
            sawla     "souls"           stefna    "voices"
            sawla     "souls' "         stefna    "voices'"
            sawlum    "(to the) souls"  stefnum   "(to the) voices"
  
With -u

            lufu      "love"                talu      "tale"
            lufe      "love"                tale      "tale"
            lufe      "love's"              tale      "tale's"
            lufe      "(to the) love"       tale      "(to the) tale"
  
            lufa      "loves"               tala      "tales"
            lufa      "loves"               tala      "tales"
            lufa      "loves' "             tala      "tales'"
            lufum     "(to the) loves"      talum     "(to the) tales"
  

A very small number of feminine nouns historically had -w- that appears everywhere but in the singular's Nominative:

         beadu     "battle"            sceadu      "shadow"
         beadwe    "battle"            sceadwe     "shadow"
         beadwe    "battle's"          sceadwe     "shadow's"
         beadwe    "(to the) battle"   sceadwe     "(to the) shadow"
  
         beadwa    "battles"           sceadwa     "shadows"
         beadwa    "battles"           sceadwa     "shadows"
         beadwa    "battles'"          sceadwa     "shadows'"
         beadwum   "(to the) battles"  sceadwum    "(to the) shadows"


Words with the suffixes -ung/ing, -nes/ness, -/u also take feminine inflexions:

      leornung    "learning"         beorhtnes    "brightness"
      leornunge   "learning"         beorhtnese   "brightness"
      leornunge   "learning"         beorhtnese   "brightness's"
      leornunge   "(to) learning"    beorhtnese   "(to) brightness"
  
      leornunga   "learnings"        beorhtnesa   "brightnesses"
      leornunga   "learnings"        beorhtnesa   "brightnesses"
      leornunga   "learnings' "      beorhtnesa   "brightnesses'"
      leornungum "(to) learnings"    beorhtnesum  "(to) brightnesses"
  



                       treow    "truth"              
                       treowe   "truth"              
                       treowe   "truth's"              
                       treowe   "(to the) truth"      
  
                       treowa   "truths"              
                       treowa   "truths"              
                       treowa   "truths'' "          
                       treowum  "(to the) truths"

And any compound that ends in a feminine word:


           n. + candel f. = dġcandel f.

                       dġcandel   "sun"                
                       dġcandele  "sun"              
                       dġcandele  "sun's"              
                       dġcandele  "(to the) sun"      
  
                       dġcandela  "suns"              
                       dġcandela  "suns"              
                       dġcandela  "suns' "          
                       dġcandelum "(to the) suns"

                      



In sum: [Again]

1. The main "Strong" Inflections
  
     Feminine Nouns

          -e inflexion throughout singular except in Nominative ,where we find "- or u"

          -a inflexion throughout plural everywhere except in the dative where we find the common -um.
          - -ung/ing, -nes/ness, -/u are feminine.

          - compounds ending in feminine words take feminine endings.
 
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The Weak Declension


The other main group of inflections is the Weak Declension.  In this declension we see a common use in -an in many cases.  Hence, sometimes it is called the "an" declension.

The Weak/"an" inflections go thus:




                                      Singular

    Masculine               Neuter                   Feminine

                Inflexion                      Inflexion                           Inflexion    

N.  Se/es        a         t/is       e          Seo/eos        e
A.  one/isne    an        t/is       e          a/as          an
G.  s/isses    an        s/isses    an         re/isse      an
D.  m/issum    an        m/issum    an         re/isse      an

                                      Plural 

N.  a/as        an        a/as        an         a/as          an
A.  a/as        an        a/as        an         a/as          an
G.  ara/issa    ena       ara/issa    ena        ara/issa      ena
D.  m/issum    um        m/issum    um         m/issum      um

  

There are many masculines and feminines in this group.  But only three neuters!

                 Neuter
        
                 eage        eye
                 eare        ear
                 wange       cheek
Masculine                      Feminine

guma       man                 hruse         earth
boda       messenger           hlfdiġe      lady
nama       name                ċyriċe        church
mona       moon                rote         throat
steorra    star                eore         earth
nefa       nephew              heorte        heart
cofa       chamber             hearpe        harp
loca       enclosure           sunne         sun
witega     prophet             burne         stream
frogga     frog                wulle         wool
cnapa      boy                 ndre         snake                      
naca       boat                moe         moth
scucca     demon               byrne         coat of mail
flota      sailor              folde         earth
hunta      hunter              bieme         trumpet
liċhoma    body                hleapestre    dancer
anda       malice              beċe          beech
 



When noun ends in long vowel (or dipthong) as frea "lord" plural gentive and plural dative "absorb" the first vowel of the inflection: thus, freana (not freaena) and fream (not freaum)
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21 posted 11-26-2005 11:32 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Larry C said:

And I thought Biblical Greek was hard!

If tears could build a stairway and memories a lane, I'd walk right up to heaven and bring you home again.
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And iċ ohte Bocliċ Crecisc ws heard!
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Irregular/Minor Inflections


The following differ from the main patterns, and include only few, but very important nouns.


I. The Sunu Nouns

(In grammars called U-Declension/U-Stems or A-Plurals)


All nouns in this group are either masculine or feminine, and follow the
pattern of Sunu m. (masculine) "son":

(Though -u in Singular's Nominative and Accusative behaves as the inflection "- or u" of the main inflections, appearing or disappearing based on syllables' length.  See Post #16).  
                   
             Short Syllable              Long Syllable


             sunu   "son"                eard    "land"
             sunu   "son"                eard    "land"
             suna   "son's"              earda   "land's"
             suna   "to the sun"         earda   "to the land"
             suna   "sons"               earda   "lands"
             suna   "sons"               earda   "lands"
             suna   "sons' "             earda   "lands' "
             sunum  "to the sons"        eardum  "to the lands"

   Masculine  

             sunu    son                 eard     land
             medu    mead                flod     flood
             wudu    wood                ford     ford
             sidu    custom              had      condition
                                         weald    forest
     Some are gone over                  hearg    shrine
     to main endings except              ppel    apple          
     in Singular N. and A:               sumor    summer
                                         winter   winter
             lagu   "lake"               frelt   journey
             bregu  "prince"            
             hearu  "sword"

   Feminine
                                 
             duru    door                hond    hand
             nosu    nose                cweorn  mill
                                         flor    floor





Epenthesis (or Parasiting)


The -e- in both ppel and winter, and the -o- in sumor, usually lost when inflection are added to a word, are called "parasitic," or "epenthetic" from the word epenthesis:

Epenthesis:


The insertion of a sound in the middle of a word, as in Middle English thunder from Old English thunor. (from dictionary.com)

[the -o- in unor is epenthetic too]

Epenthesis (a process that inserts a segment into a particular environment) results from the anticipation of an upcoming sound.  Ex. ganra became gandra (gander) in a later form by adding the d .   See here.


The -t- in the word stream is also epenthetic:

[Middle English streme, from Old English stram. See sreu- in Indo-European Roots.] (from dictionary.com)

Epenthetic vowels often rise betwixt consonant + m, n, l or r.
And words with them usually behave in Young English as if those vowels are not there, thus winter, like wintr, (a long syllable) (and also tungol n. "star" that we saw before in the Main "Strong" Declensions.  





II. Family-Nouns


     Fder                       Broor

      fder      "father"             broor      "brother"
      fder      "father"             broor      "brother"
      fder      "father's"           broor      "brother's            
      fder      "to the father"      breor      "to the brother"  

      fderas    "fathers"            broor      "brothers"
      fderas    "fathers"            broor      "brothers"
      fdera     "fathers'"           brora      "brothers'"
      fderum    "to the fathers"     brorum     "to the brothers"


     Modor                       Sweostor



      modor      "mother"             sweostor      "sister"
      modor      "mother"             sweostor      "sister"
      modor      "mother's"           sweostor      "sister's            
      meder      "to the mother"      sweostor      "to the sister"
  

      modra      "mothers"            sweostor      "sisters"
      modra      "mothers"            sweostor      "sisters"
      modra      "mothers'"           sweostra      "sisters'"
      modrum     "to the mothers"     sweostrum     "to the sisters"



                    Dohtor



                     dohtor      "daughter"            
                     dohtor      "daughter"            
                     dohtor      "daughter's"                      
                     dehter      "to the daughter"
        

                     dohtor      "daughters"            
                     dohtor      "daughters"            
                     dohtra      "daughters'"          
                     dohtrum     "to the daughters"      

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Larry C said:

Gotta love a teacher with a good sense of humor.


If tears could build a stairway and memories a lane, I'd walk right up to heaven and bring you home again.
 
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