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Passions in Poetry

Young English

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25 posted 11-26-2005 11:38 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Ic lufie leorneras and leornunge.
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26 posted 11-26-2005 11:40 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Note: The grammatical gender of each Family-noun is in "agreement" with natural gender: Thus Fęder and brošor are Masculine.   Modor, sweostor, and dohtor are Feminine.  

And brošor and sweostor are pluralia tantum when they show up with the prefix ġe: ġebrošor "brothers"  ġesweostor "sisters"
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27 posted 11-26-2005 11:41 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Irregular/Minor Inflections (cont'd)

III. Mann/Menn-Nouns

The i-thing (sometimes known as i-umlaut or i-mutation or front-mutation)

Umlaut [German, from um about + laut sound.]

[In Philology] The euphonic modification of a root vowel sound by the influence of a, u, or especially i, in the syllable which formerly followed. [From:]

The following have some cases that are influenced by a special letter i. When this i was near, it put influence over a vowel, and then the vowel became closer to the i-sound.

Thus the earier plural nominative for mann was manniz.  The i in the ending -iz then influenced the a to become e; similarly others were influenced, o to become e, u to become y; or a to become ę.

This influential i vanished but left behind a trail of influenced vowels as tokens to remind us it was there: men, feet, teeth, lice, mice, breeches, etc. (and also the  brešer and meder, of the family-nouns above.)

(there are no neuters in this group)


            mann       "man"             wifmann    "woman"
            mann       "man"             wifmann    "woman"
            mannes     "man's"           wifmannes  "woman's"
            menn       "(to the) man"    wifmenn    "(to the) woman"
            menn       "men"             wifmenn    "women"
            menn       "men"             wifmenn    "women"
            manna      "men's' "         wifmanna   "women's"
            mannum     "(to the) men"    wifmannum  "(to the) women"

            fot       "foot"             toš    "tooth"
            fot       "foot"             toš    "tooth"
            fotes     "foot's"           tošes  "tooth's"
            fet       "(to the) foot"    teš    "(to the) tooth"
            fet       "feet"             teš    "teeth"
            fet       "feet"             teš    "teeth"
            fota      "feet's"           toša   "teeth's"
            fotum     "(to the) feet"    tošum  "(to the) teeth"


            boc       "book"             cu     "cow"
            boc       "book"             cu     "cow"
            beċ       "book's"           cy     "cow's"
            beċ      "(to the) book"     cy     "(to the) cow"
            beċ       "books"            cy     "kine"
            beċ       "books"            cy     "kine"
            boca      "books'"           cyna   "kine's"
            bocum     "(to the) books"   cunum  "(to the) kine"

            broc     "(pair of) breeches"     gos   "goose"
            broc     "(pair of) breeches"     gos   "goose"
            breċ     "(pair of) breeches's"   ges   "goose's"
            breċ     "(to the) breeches"      ges   "(to the) goose"
            breċ    "(pairs of) breeches"     ges    "geese"
            breċ    "(pairs of) breeches"     ges    "geese"
            breċena "(pairs of) breeches''"   gosa   "geese's"
            brocum    "(to the) breeches"     gosum  "(to the) geese"

            mus      "mouse"              lus    "louse"
            mus      "mouse"              lus    "louse"
            mys      "mouse's"            lys    "louse's"
            mys      "(to the) mouse"     lys    "(to the) louse"
            mys      "mice"               lys    "lice"
            mys      "mice"               lys    "lice"
            musa     "mice's"             lusa   "lice's"
            musum    "(to the) mice"      lusum  "(to the) lice"

            burg      "city"              turf   "turf"
            burg      "city"              turf   "turf"
            byriġ     "city's"            tyrf   "turf's"
            byriġ     "(to the) city"     tyrf   "(to the) turf"
            byriġ     "cities"            tyrf   "turfs"
            byriġ     "cities"            tyrf   "turfs"
            burga     "cities'"           turfa  "turfs' "
            burgum    "(to the) cities"   turfum "(to the) turfs"

            hnutu      "nut"              studu   "post"
            hnutu      "nut"              studu   "post"
            hnyte      "nut's"            styde   "post's"
            hnyte      "(to the) nut"     styde   "(to the) post"
            hnyte      "nuts"             styde   "posts"
            hnyte      "nuts"             styde   "posts"
            hnuta      "nuts' "           studa   "posts' "
            hnutum     "(to the) nuts"    studum  "(to the) posts"

            ac      "oak"                 gat   "goat"
            ac      "oak"                 gat   "goat"
            ęc      "oak's"               gęt   "goat"
            ęc      "(to the) oak"        gęt   "(to the) goat"
            ęc      "oaks"                gęt   "goats"
            ęc      "oaks"                gęt   "goats"
            aca     "oaks' '"             gata  "goats' "
            acum    "(to the) oaks"       gętum "(to the) goats"

            furh      "furrow"            sulh   "plough"
            furh      "furrow"            sulh   "plough"
            fyrh      "furrow's"          sylh   "plough's"
            fyrh      "(to the) furrow"   sylh   "(to the) plough"
            fyrh      "furrows"           sylh   "ploughs"
            fyrh      "furrows"           sylh   "ploughs"
            fura      "furrows' "         sula   "ploughs' "
            furum     "(to the) furrows"  sulum  "(to the) ploughs"

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28 posted 11-26-2005 11:43 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant


Below are some words you may find interesting.

        S/Z                       R


     was                       were
     us                        our
     raise                     rear
     forleosan "to abandon"    forloren "abandoned"
     ceosan "to choose"        coren "chosen"
     isern "iron"              iren "iron"
     auso                      ear
     dius                      dear
     maiza                     more
     batiza                    better
     huzd                      hoard
     hausjan                   hear
     laisjan                   learn
     aiz                       ore
     corpus "body"             corpor- (corporation)
     tempus "time"             tempor- (temporary)
     genus  "kind"             gener- (generation)
     pectus "breast"           pector- (pectoral)
     funis  "funeral"          funer- (funeral)
     opus   "work"             oper- (operation)
     rus    "country"          rur- (rural)
     ius    "justice"          iur- (jury)
     ros    "dew"              ror- (?)
     flos   "blossom"          flor- (floral)
     onus   "burden"           oner- (onerous)
     mos    "custom"           mor-  (moral)
     os     "mouth"            or- (oral)


Gothic dags "day"              Old Norse dagr "day"
Latin dies "day"

In each example there is a form with an s or z, and a different or later form that shows an r where the s/z otherwise should be.  This change, or difference, is called Rhotacism: An s or z became, or becomes r.  It is a unique change and explains the uniqueness of the next group of nouns we shall meet. (hint: think of the word children)

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29 posted 11-26-2005 11:47 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Irregular/Minor Inflections (cont'd)

IV. Lamb/Lambru Nouns

Here are some old relics come down from Young English that have rhotacism in their plurals.  Their original suffix had an -s-.  It disappeared in the singular, but was retained in the plural in its rhotacised form: -r-.   The element and the behavior is the same as those in the latin words tempus "time", genus "kind" etc. All of them are neuter!

     ęġ      "egg"                    ċealf     "calf"
     ęġ      "egg"                    ċealf     "calf"
     ęġes    "egg's"                  ċealfes   "calf's"
     ęġe     "to the egg"             ċealfe    "to the calf"

     ęġru    "eggs"                   ċealfru   "calves"
     ęġru    "eggs"                   ċealfru   "calves"
     ęġra    "eggs' "                 ċealfra   "calves'"
     ęġrum   "to the eggs"            ċealfrum  "to the calves"

     lamb           "lamb"            ċild      "child"
     lamb           "lamb"            ċild      "child"
     lambes         "lamb's"          ċildes    "child's"
     lambe          "to the lamb"     ċilde     "to the child"

     lambru         "lambs"           ċildru    "children"
     lambru         "lambs"           ċildru    "children"
     lambra         "lambs' "         ċildra    "children's"
     lambrum        "to the lambs"    ċildrum   "to the children"

     bread          "crumb"           speld     "torch"
     bread          "crumb"           speld     "torch"
     breades        "crumb's"         speldes   "torch's"
     breade         "to the crumb"    spelde    "to the torch"

     breadru        "crumbs"          speldru   "torches"
     breadru        "crumbs"          speldru   "torches"
     breadra        "crumbs' "        speldra   "torches' "
     breadrum       "to the crumbs"   speldrum  "to the torches"

                    hęmed     "cohabitation"
                    hęmed     "cohabitation"
                    hęmedes   "cohabitation's"
                    hęmede    "to the cohabitation"

                    hęmedru   "cohabitations"
                    hęmedru   "cohabitations"
                    hęmedra   "cohabitations"
                    hęmedrum  "to the cohabitations"
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30 posted 11-26-2005 11:51 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

V. Hęlež m., Monaž m., Męġež f., Ealu n.

     Hęlež                       Monaž

      hęlež      "hero"              monaž      "month"
      hęlež      "hero"              monaž      "month"
      hęležes    "hero's"            monažes    "month's            
      hęleže     "to the hero"       monaže     "to the month"  

      hęlež      "heros"             monaž      "months"
      hęlež      "heros"             monaž      "months"
      hęleža     "heros'"            monaža     "months'"
      hęležum    "to the heros"      monažum    "to the months"

     Męġež                       Ealu

      męġež      "maiden"            ealu       "ale"
      męġež      "maiden"            ealu       "ale"
      męġež      "maiden's"          ealož      "ale's            
      męġež      "to the maiden"     ealož      "to the ale"

      męġež      "maidens"           ealož      "ales"
      męġež      "maidens"           ealož      "ales"
      męġeža     "maidens'"          ealeža     "ales'"
      męġežum    "to the maidens"    ealežum    "to the ales"

Note: another form, hęle (without ) shows up in the singular nominative and accusative cases.  
Hęlež and monaž also both show up with nominative and accusative plurals that take -as from the masculine's main "strong" inflections: hęležas "heros", monažas "months".  
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31 posted 11-26-2005 11:52 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Some word Equations:

Bryd "bride" + Ealu "ale" = Brydealu "bridal"

Bryd "bride" + Guma "man" =  Brydguma "bridegroom"

Where did the r in (bride)groom come from?
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32 posted 11-26-2005 11:53 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

VI.  The -end

The final "minority" of nouns has the special ending -end, which commonlier betokens in Young English the present participle of a verb.  
Few present participles, though, were specially used as nouns and may often be translated with an Old English present participle in -ing followed by the word "one" or a verbal noun that ends with -er, such as lover.  Two words that survived into Old English from this group are friend and fiend.   Truly their Young English origin may widen one's insight of their meaning.

Verb:  Freoġan "to free; to love"    Present participle: freoġende "freeing; loving"

                          used as a noun: freond "freeing/loving one"

Verb:  Feoġan "to hate"              Present participle: feoġende "hating"

                          used as a noun: feond "hating one"

                           A                                                            B

      freond      "friend"              hęlend      "savior"
      freond      "friend"              hęlend      "savior"
      freondes    "friend's"            hęlendes    "savior's"        
      friend      "to the friend"       hęlende     "to the savior"  

      friend      "friends"             hęlend      "saviors"
      friend      "friends"             hęlend      "saviors"
      freonda     "friends' "           hęlendra    "saviors' "
      freondum    "to the friends"      hęlendum    "to the savior"

A. Three other nouns follow the pattern of freond "friend":
                          feond             fiend  
                          teond             accuser
                          goddond           good-doer

B. All other nouns follow the pattern of hęlend "savior":
      sellend         giver            wiġend            warrior
      demend          judge            ehtend            persecutor
      eardiend        dweller          fultumiend        helper
      healdend        chief            sceotend          warrior
      nerġend         savior           wealdend          ruler
      rędend          ruler            ridend            rider
      scyppend        shaper           helpend           helper
      wrecend         avenger          semend            arbitrator
      metend          measurer         beswicend         deceiver
      secgend         sayer            galend            enchanter
      agend           owner            hlystend          listener
      berend          bearer           lęstend           doer
      buend           dweller          ližend            sailor
      hębbend         owner            tęlend            reprover
      hettend         enemy            sawolberend       soulbearer  

All the nouns above are Masculine and sometimes show up with nominative and accusative plurals in --as from the masculine's main "strong" inflections: freondas "friends", hettendas "enemies".

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33 posted 11-26-2005 11:55 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Nights, Days, and Months

The first half of the day was: Niht
The second half of the day was: Dęg


Sunnanniht     "Sun's night"    (Saturday Night)
Monanniht      "Moon's night"   (Sunday Night)
Tiwesniht      "Tiw's night"    (Monday Night)
Wodnesniht     "Wodan's night"  (Tuesday Night)
Šunresniht     "Thor's night"   (Wednesday Night)
Frigeniht      "Frigg's night"  (Thursday Night)
Sęterniht      "Saturn's night" (Friday Night)


Sunnandęg      "Sun's Day"    (Sunday)
Monandęg       "Moon's Day"   (Monday)
Tiwesdęg       "Tiw's Day"    (Tuesday)
Wodnesdęg      "Wodan's Day"  (Wednesday)
Šunresdęg      "Thor's Day"   (Thursday)
Frigedęg       "Frigg's Day"  (Friday)
Sęterndęg      "Saturn's Day" (Saturday)


Ęrra Geola     "Ere Yule"       (December)
Ęftera Geola   "After Yule"     (January)
Solmonaž       "Soilmonth"      (February)
Hrešmonaž      "Hreth's Month"  (March)
Eostremonaž    "Easter's Month" (April)
Žrimilce       "Threemilkings"  (May)
Ęrra Liša      "Ere Midsummer"  (June)
Ęftera Liša    "After Midsummer"(July)
Weodmonaž      "Weedmonth"      (August)
Haligmonaž     "Holy Month"     (September)
Winterfylleš   "Winter's fullmoon"(October)
Blotmonaž      "Sacrifice-month" (November)

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34 posted 11-26-2005 11:57 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant


B. Adjectives

The adjective takes inflections according to the grammatical conditions (gender, case, and number) in the noun it serves. If the noun is masculine and in nominative and plural, the adjective must take masculine inflection and be in nominative and plural too.

Nominative: subject and activity.  (The fair Queen...)
Accusative: object and passivity.  (kissed the keen King.)
Genitive: possessive. (The keen King's Queen...)
Dative: indirect object. (gave kisses to the keen King)
       (Remember dative shows up mostly after prepositions.  Especially after on "in, on", mid "with" to "to" and of "from")

There are two inflexion-groups:  The Strong Declension and The Weak Declension  

The most important condition of the Weak Declension is its firm use when the adjective follows a form of se "the" or šes "this".  That is where you shall find it most often in Young English.  Other places are: after a possessive pronoun; in second person directly addressing someone (you sweet lady, you dear lord); in comparitives (wiser, fairer, stronger); and in ordinal numbers (except only ošer "second" that always takes strong inflexions!)

The Strong Declension is used everywhere else.

The Strong Declension:

                          beorht "bright"

           Masculine               Neuter                 Feminine

    -      beorht          -       beorht        - or u   beorht
    ne     beorhtne        -       beorht          e      beorhte
    es     beorhtes        es      beorhtes        re     beorhtre
    um     beorhtum        um      beorhtum        re     beorhtre

    e      beorhte         - or u  beorht          a      beorhta
    e      beorhte         - or u  beorht          a      beorhta
    ra     beorhtra        ra      beorhtra        ra     beorhtra
    um     beorhtum        um      beorhtum        um     beorhtum

The Weak Declension:
    a      beorhta         e       beorhte         e      beorhte
    an     beorhtan        e       beorhte         an     beorhtan
    an     beorhtan        an      beorhtan        an     beorhtan
    an     beorhtan        an      beorhtan        an     beorhtan

    e      beorhtan        an      beorhtan        an     beorhtan
    e      beorhtan        an      beorhtan        an     beorhtan
    ena    beorhtena       ena     beorhtena       ena    beorhtena
    um     beorhtum        um      beorhtum        um     beorhtum

The inflections in red are the only ones  either different in form (as ne, re and ra) or use (as um in singular, e in plural) from the main nouns' inflections.

ne, re and ra don't chime with the main nouns' inflections.  However, they do chime with the corresponding forms of "the"

Word with Inflection         "The"-form

beorhtne                        žone
beorhtre                        žęre
beorhtra                        žara

The Weak Declension's inflections are exactly the same as the inflexions in the Noun's Weak Declension.


god            good              har            hoar
yfel           evil              ġeong          young
fęġer          fair              miċel          mickle
ględ           glad              beald          bold
blęc           black             brun           brown
maniġ          many              haliġ          holy
fea            few               efen           even
ċeald          cold              lang           long
sęd            satiated          deop           deep
węr            wary              deorc          dark
dol            foolish           eald           old
heard          hard              hwit           white
trum           strong            halt           lame
ful            foul              great          large
hal            whole             smęl           small
read           red               wraž           wroth
węt            wet               scort          short
stearc         stiff             ranc           proud
nacod          naked             bysiġ          busy
deore          dear              grene          green
riċe           rich              brad           broad
riht           right             wis            wise
scearp         sharp             sar            soar
strang         strong            wearm          warm
wac            weak              wid            wide
eall           all               feorr          far
full           full              dunn           dun
open           open              fęġen          glad
seoc           sick              idel           idle
cręftiġ        skillful          wilde          wild
cene           bold              clęne          clean
cynde          natural           bliže          blithe
liže           lithe             freo           free
heah           high              sum            some
niewe          new               wierže         worthy

ęšele          noble             torht          bright
eċe            eternal           męre           famous
lęne           temporary         hnęsc          nesh      
swiž           strong            leof           lief
ġeorn          eager             eadiġ          happy
ġearu          yare              gleaw          wise
hręd           quick             hold           gracious
este           graceful          dierne         hidden
hlutor         clear             wod            mad
snotor         wise              deagol         secret
hnot           bald              sož            true
til            good              rof            brave
fracož         vile              wacor          vigilant
frod           wise              wealt          unsteady
fram           active            žearl          severe
freċ           bold              wlanc          pround
frum           original          rum            roomy
earg           cowardly          wręst          firm
nytt           useful            midd           middle
earm           poor              snell          ready
fus            eager             flugol         fleet
laž            hateful           plegol         playful
wund           wounded           flacor         flickering
hror           brave             atol           terrible
sweotol        clear             forod          decayed
etol           gluttonous        hol            hollow  
reċen          ready             breme          famous
eġle           troublesome       andrysne       terrible
ęltęwe         entire            ieže           eath
fęġe           fated             bryċe          useful
ierre          angry             andfenge       acceptable
ġesibb         akin              fęcne          deceitful
swiċe          deceitful         stęġle         steep
row            quiet             sciene         beautiful
hneaw          stingy            ġedefe         fitting
ġemęne         common            cuž            known    
hean           despised          fah            hostile
fyrn           old               ġemyne         mindful

The "- or u" inflectional rule stands the same as in the nouns.
The suffixes below though take only one or the other almost all the time.

With u

-sum "-some"
lufsum         lovesome          angsum         troublesome
ansum          onesome           wilsum         willsome
frišsum        peaceful          wynsum         joysome
fremsum        beneficial        weorcsum       worksome
ġeleafsum      beliefsome        larsum         loresome
ġesibbsum      friendly          langsum        longsome            

-liċ "-like"

heofonliċ      heavenly          ęnliċ         unique
woruldliċ      worldly           torhtliċ      glorious
gastliċ        ghostly           earmliċ       poorly
lichamliċ      bodily            deadliċ       deadly  
tidliċ         timely            wifliċ        wifely
dęġliċ         daily             werliċ        manly
nytliċ         useful            ċildliċ       childly
stowliċ        local             ġearliċ       yearly

-iġ "-y"

cręftiġ        crafty            wlitiġ        beautiful
wordiġ         wordy             grędiġ        greedy      
žorniġ         thorny            spediġ        speedy
andiġ          envious           ġesęliġ       happy
adliġ          sick              hungriġ       hungery
dyrstiġ        daring            staniġ        stoney
scyldiġ        guilty            deawiġ        dewy
cystiġ         bountiful         modiġ         moody
gežyldiġ       patient           fyrstiġ       frosty
omiġ           rusty             ystiġ         stormy
sariġ          sorry             blodiġ        bloody
haliġ          holy              maniġ         many

-en "-en"

meolcen        milken            žyrnen        of thorns
seolcen        silken            tiġelen       of tile
leaden         leaden            rinden        of rind
ęscen          ashen             piċen         of pitch
ęcen           oaken             sceapen       of sheep
bęnen          of bone           cryccen       of clay
beċen          of beech          flinten       of flint
moddren        of mothers        floden        of river
fęderen        of fathers        heorten       of hart  
beanen         of beans          hearmascinnen of ermine
bloden         of blood          holen         of holly
byxen          of boxwood        cypren        of copper
fyren          of fire           fellen        of fells (skins)
beren          of barley         linden        of linden-wood
eoršen         earthen           linen         of flax
purpuren       of purple         huniġtearen   nectar-like
stylen         of steel          elpendbęnen   of elephant-bone
stęnen         of stone          elebeamen     of olive-tree
swinen         of swine          hyrnen        of horn
treowen        of tree           fyxen         of fox
tinen          of tin            yteren        of otterskin
rosen          of roses          lyften        of air        
flęscen        of flesh          deoren        of wild animal
godwebben      of purple-cloth   deorfellen    of animal-hides
tunglen        of stars          hrišeren      of rother (cattle)
twinen         of twine          gęten         of goat
ęttren         poisonous         hunden        of hound
seolfren       silvern           hwęlen        of whale
gylden         golden            wirtreowen    of myrtle
lešren         leathern          hwęten        of wheat
siden          of silk           riscen        of rushes
hęren          of hair           eletreowen    of olive tree
hwilen         of a while        cwicbeamen    of aspen
bręsen         brazen            pęllen        of pall                      
ġielpen        boastful          ryġen         of rye

Without u

-cund "-kind"

ęšelecund      noblekind         sawolcund     soulkind
weoroldcund    worldkind         eoršcund      earthkind
godcund        Godkind           feorrcund     farkind
gastcund       ghostkind         deofolcund    devilkind
heofoncund     heavenkind        esnecund      slavekind
innancund      innerkind         yfelcund      evilkind

-fęst "-fast"

stedefęst      steadfast         męġenfęst     mainfast
siġefęst       victorious        eoršfęst      earthfast
ęrendfęst      errandfast        hyġefęst      thoughtful
wiffęst        wifefast          treowfęst     faithful
husfęst        housefast         ġieffęst      gifted
arfęst         virtuous          žeawfęst      thewfast

-isc "-ish"

bryttisc       British           englisc       English        
scyttisc       Scottish          pihtisc       Pictish
centisc        Kentish           wielisc       Welsh
ebreisc        Hebrew            iudeisc       Judaish
crecisc        Greek             saracenisc    Saracen
frenċisc       French            romanisc      Roman
persisc        Persian           gallisc       Gaulish
pirenisc       Pyrrhenian        pierisc       Pierian        
Saduceisc      Sadducean         farisceisc    Pharisaic
denisc         Danish            inlendisc     native
folcisc        folkish           entish        giantish
eorlisc        noble             ċildisc       childish
heofonisc      heavenish         mennisc       human

-full "-ful"

wundorfull     wonderful         wuldorfull    glorious
wordfull       wordful           ġeleaffull    beliefful
bismerfull     disgraceful       bealofull     baleful
eġefull        awful             scyldfull     guilty
ġeornfull      yearnful          žancfull      thoughtful
andġietfull    intellegent       modfull       moodful

-leas "-less"

domleas        inglorious        dreamleas     joyless
weoržleas      worthless         spręcleas     speechess
arleas         impious           modleas       spiritless
hamleas        homeless          sacleas       innocent

-feald "-fold"

anfeald        onefold           maniġfeald    manifold
felafeald      manifold          hundfeald     hundredfold
seofonfeald    sevenfold         twentiġfeald  twentyfold          

-weard "-ward"

andweard       present           ęfterweard    following
toweard        toward            hamweard      homeward
ufeweard       upward            nižerweard    netherward
innanweard     inward            foržweard     forthward            

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Adjectives (cont'd)

Comparatives and Superlatives

All comparatives take the Weak Declension's endings. And all superlatives use either the Strong or the Weak Declension, just as normal adjectives.

Postive               Comparative             Superlative
(Normal Adjective)

leof  "dear"          leofra  "dearer"        leofost  "dearest"
heard "hard"          heardra "harder"        heardost "hardest"
earm  "poor"          earmra  "poorer"        earmost  "poorest"
bliše "blithe"        blišra  "blither"       blišost  "blithest"
cene  "keen"          cenra   "keener"        cenost   "keenest"
fęġer "fair"          fęġerra "fairer"        fęġerost "fairest"

A few adjectives originally took the suffixes -ra,-st beginning with an i: ira, ist The i in the ending then altered the word's vowel, just like in the mann/menn nouns. And the i in ist shows up as e in -est instead of the regular -ost

brad   "broad"        brędra   "broader"      brędest   "broadest"
eald   "old"          ieldra   "older"        ieldest   "oldest"
strang "strong"       strengra "stronger"     strengest "strongest"
lang   "long"         lengra   "longer"       lengest   "longest"
ġeong  "young"        ġingra   "younger"      ġingest   "youngest"
great  "great"        grietra  "greater"      grietest  "greatest"
heah   "high"         hiehra   "higher"       hiehest   "highest"
sceort "short"        scyrtra  "shorter"      scyrtest  "shortest"

A small group of comparative and superlative adjectives are from different
roots than the "positives":

god   "good"    --  betra   "better"        betst    "best"
                 \  selra   "better"        selest   "best"

lytel "little"      lęssa   "less"          lęst     "least"
miċel "great"       mara    "greater"       męst     "greatest"
yfel  "evil"        wiersa  "worse"         wierrest "worst"

Finally, there are some comparative and superlative adjectives made from
adverbs. The superlative sometimes shows up in -ma or -mest

Adverbs                          Adjectives

                    Comparative              Superlative

ęr "formerly"       ęrra     "earlier"       ęrest     "first"
fore  "before"           No comparative      fyrest, forma, fyrmest "first"
ęfter "after"       ęfterra  "afterer"       ęftemest  "aftmost"
neah  "nigh"        nearra   "near"          niehst    "next"
feorr "far"         fierra   "farer"         fierrest  "farest"  
hindan "behind"          No comparative      hindema   "behindmost"
inne  "inside"      innerra  "inner"         innemest  "inmost"
ute   "outside"     uterra   "outer"         utemest   "outmost"
neožan "below"      niŽerra  "lower"         nižemest  "lowest"
ufan  "above"       uferra   "upper"         ufemest   "upmost"
siž   "late"        sižra    "later"         sižest    "latest"
norž  "north(ward)" noržerra "norther"       noržmest  "northmost"
suž   "south(ward)" sužerra  "souther"       sužmest   "southmost"
east  "east(ward)"  easterra "easter"        eastmest  "eastmost"
west  "west(ward)"  westerra "wester"        westmest  "westmost"
The below, though not from adverbs, also have superlatives in -mest:

midd  "middle"        No comparative       midemest "midmost"
lęt   "late"          lętra "later"        lętemest, lętest "latest"

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Nouns and Adjectives' inflections: Summary.

The following table may be helpful for memorizing the Young English inflections.

          MAIN              WEAK          SUNU-       STRONG

    Masc. Neut. Fem. | Masc. Neut. Fem. |Masc/Fem | Masc. Neut. Fem.              
N.    -     -   (u)  |  a     e     e   |   (u)   |  -     -    (u)
A.    -     -    e   |  an    e     an  |   (u)   |  ne    -     e
G.    es    es   e   |  an    an    an  |    a    |  es    es    re
D.    e     e    e   |  an    an    an  |    a    |  um    um    re
  pl.                | '.____    ____/  |         |
N.    as   (u)   a   |       `an/       |    a    |  e    (u)    a
A.    as   (u)   a   |        an        |    a    |  e    (u)    a
G.    a     a    a   |        ena       |    a    |  ra    ra    ra
D.    um    um   um  |        um        |    um   |  um    um    um

(u) = "- or u"

Some points to remember:

*Where the ending as is we should remember nation-names and some other peoples have e (Engle "Angles", Dene "Danes" et cetera).

*Strong Neuter nouns with nominative singular e (riċe "kingdom") always have  their plural in u (riċu "kingdoms").

*The "Main Strong Nouns" have one masc. (bearu "grove") and six or seven neuters that end in u in sg. N. and A. (bealu "bale", cudu "cud", teoru "tar", meolu "meal, flour", searu "device", smeoru "fat").  As well some feminines as we saw earlier in beadu "battle" and sceadu "shadow". When the inflections are added to these the u shows up as w, so: bearwes "grove's", teorwe "(to the) tar".  A few adjectives behave similarly: ġearu "yare", fealu "fallow", basu "purple", calu "callow", cylu "spotted"; ġeolu "yellow", hasu "grey" mearu "tender", nearu "narrow", sealu "dark"  After the inflections beginning with consonants (ne, re, and ra) the u shows up as o, thus: ġearone, sealore, ġealora.  

*Strong adjectives with e  (grene "green") in masc. or neut.'s nominative, always shall have u in neut's plural or fem.'s singular. (grenu)

*Neuter only has three weak nouns: eage "eye", eare "ear", wange "cheek"
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Cardinals                        Ordinals

an        "one"                  forma       "first"
twegen    "two"                  ošer        "second"
žreo      "three"                žridda      "third"
feower    "four"                 feowerža    "fourth"
fif       "five"                 fifta       "fifth"
siex      "six"                  siexta      "sixth"
seofon    "seven"                seofoža     "seventh"
eahta     "eight"                eahtoža     "eighth"
nigon     "nine"                 nigoža      "nineth"
tien      "ten"                  teoža       "tenth"
endleofan "eleven"               endleofta   "eleventh"
twelf     "twelve"               twelfta     "twelfth"
žreotien  "thirteen"             žreoteoža   "thirteenth"
feowertien"fourteen"             feowerteoža "fourteenth"
fiftien   "fifteen"              fifteoža    "fifteenth"
siextien  "sixteen"              siexteoža   "sixteenth"
seofontien"seventeen"            seofonteoža "seventeenth"
eahtatien "eighteen"             eahtateoža  "eighteenth"
nigontien "nineteen"             nigonteoža  "nineteenth"

twentiġ           "twenty"       twentigoža           "twentieth"
an and twentiġ    "twenty-one"   an and twentigoža    "twenty-first"
tweġen and twentiġ"twenty-two"   tweġen and twentigoža"twenty-second"
žreo and twentig  "twenty-three" žreo and twentigoža  "twenty-third"
________           __________  
          et cetera

žritiġ       "thirty"            žritigoža       "thirtieth"
feowertiġ    "fourty"            feowertigoža    "fourtieth"
fiftiġ       "fifty"             fiftigoža       "fiftieth"
siextiġ      "sixty"             siextigoža      "sixtieth"
hundseofontiġ"seventy"           hundseofontigoža"seventieth"
hundeahtatiġ "eighty"            hundeahtatigoža "eightieth"
hundnigontiġ "ninety"            hundnigontigoža "ninetieth"

hundteontiġ  "100"               hundteontigoža "100th"
(or hund, hundred)
an and hundteontiġ "101"         an and hundteontigoža "101st"
tweġen and hundteontiġ "102"     tweġen and hundteontigoža "102nd"
žreo and hundteontiġ "103"       žreo and hundteontigoža "103rd"
________           __________  
          et cetera

hundendleofantiġ "110"           hundendleofantigoža "110th"
hundtwelftiġ "120"               hundtwelftigoža "120th"

hund and žritiġ "130"            hund and žritigoža "130th"
hund and an and žritiġ "131"     hund and an and žritigoža "131st"
hund and tweġen and žritiġ "132" hund and tweġen and žritigoža "132st"
hund and žreo and žritiġ "133"   hund and žreo and žritigoža "133rd"
________           __________  
          et cetera

hund and feowertiġ "140"         hund and feowertigoža "140th"
hund and fiftiġ "150"            hund and fiftigoža "150th"
hund and siextiġ "160"           hund and siextigoža "160th"
hund and seofontiġ "170"         hund and seofontigoža "170th"
hund and eahtatiġ "180"          hund and eahtatigoža "180th"
hund and nigontiġ "190"          hund and nigontigoža "190th"

twa hundteontiġ "200"            twa hundteontigoža "200th"
(or twa hund, twa hundred)    
an and twa hundteontiġ "201"     an and twa hundteontigoža "201st"
(or twa hund and an)        
tweġen and twa hundteontiġ "202" tweġen and twa hundteontigoža"202nd"
(or twa hund and tweġen)        
žreo and twa hundteontiġ "203"   žreo and twa hundteontigoža "203rd"
(or twa hund and žreo)          
________           __________  
          et cetera

žreo hundteontiġ "300"           žreo hundteontigoža "300th"
feower hundteontiġ "400"         feower hundteontigoža "400th"
fif hundteontiġ "500"            fif hundteontigoža "500th"
siex hundteontiġ "600"           siex hundteontigoža   "600th"
seofon hundteontiġ "700"         seofon hundteontigoža "700th"
eahta hundteontiġ "800"          eahta hundteontigoža "800th"
nigon hundteontiġ "900"          nigon hundteontigoža "900th"

žusend "1000"                    žusendteontigoža "1000th"
(or žusendteontiġ)               (or žusendoža)


Note: I don't think ordinals for 300, 400, 500, etc, nor for 1000 occurred anywhere in  literature written in Young English.  The forms for those above are based on the others  and added for possiblity and completeness.

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Numerals (cont'd): Inflections


An "one"

The Cardinal an "one" takes ordinary weak and strong adjectival inflections.  
In the weak, usually ana, it  means "alone"
It may be used in plural for collective meaning as well.  

tweġen (literally twain) "two"

Masculine       Neuter       Feminine

(plurals only)

N. tweġen       twa          twa
A. tweġen       twa          twa    
G. tweġra       tweġra       tweġra
D. twęm         twęm         twęm    

For neuter twa we find tu as well.

žreo "three"

N. žrie         žreo         žreo
A. žrie         žreo         žreo  
G. žreora       žreora       žreora
D. žrim         žrim         žrim

begen "both"

(Like tweġen)

N. beġen        ba           ba
A. beġen        ba           ba    
G. beġra        beġra        beġra
D. bęm          bęm          bęm

For neuter ba we find bu as well.

ba and twa sometimes form combination, ba twa "both", used both in masculine and feminine, usually bu tu (or one word,  butu) in neuter.

The other cardinals most usually don't take inflections.  Where they do we find normal stong inflections.

All ordinals except ošer (literally other) "second" take Weak adjective inflections.  ošer takes Strong adjective inflections.
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Personal Pronouns

    FIRST     SECOND                 THIRD PERSON
    PERSON    PERSON          

    iċ    žu      he     hit    heo

N.    "I"    žu  "you"    he   "he"    hit "it"   heo  "she"
A.  me  "me"   že  "you"    hine "him"   hit "it"   hie  "her"
G.  min "my"   žin "your"   his  "his"   his "its"  hire "her"
D.  me  "me"   že  "you"    him  "him"   him "it"   hire "her"
                               ___________   ___________
                                          \ /
N.  we  "we"   ġe    "you"            hie   "they"
A.  us  "us"   eow   "you"            hie   "them"
G.  ure "our"  eower "your"           hiera "their"
D.  us  "us"   eow   "you"            him   "them"
The first and second also have a "dual" number meaning "we two" and "you two:"
  wit         ġit

N.  wit   "we two"       ġit "you two"
A.  unc   "us two"       inc "you two"
G.  uncer "our"          incer "your"
D.  unc   "us two"       inc "you two"

The first and the second genitives (min, ure, uncer ; žin, eower, incer) behave just as adjectives, with possessive meaning (my house, our house, our house (of us two); thy house, your house, your house (of you two) ) and always take the inflections of the Strong Declension.

For the third person's possessive, the genitives show up just as they are: his, hire and hiera.  
And rarely, sin is used for any of them, declined in endings from the adjective's Strong Declension.

Sometime first and second person accusatives show up with-c (like in ic) : mec "me" usic "us"  žec "you"  eowic "you"  And sometimes dual accusatives show up with -t (like in wit, git): uncit "us two" incit "you two"  

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40 posted 11-26-2005 12:19 PM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant


There are two main kinds of verb in Young English: The Strong and the Weak.

The strong verb changes its vowel to show past tense as Old English drink/drank.  And the weak verb uses d to show past tense, as love/loved, that, after some consonants, is t, such as in think/thought.  The vowel difference in think/thought is based on a different change, and similarily for, tell/told.  But the d/t in past tense lets us know for sure that these are weak verbs.

                  The Strong Verb

                   The verb that changes its vowel; ride/rad "ride/rode"

                   Main Indicative (doing)

CLASS               A strong verb fits into one of seven classes.
                    The grade is the vowel that the verb will show
First Grade         in contrast with other "grades."
                    Under First Grade we find infinitives (one with
Infinitive: -an     "to" as in "to go" and one without "to") and
     (to) -enne     present tense.  The infinitives correspond
Present             to any Old English verb with to in front
1 sg. -e            of it: to rise, to sing, etc. The one without "to"
2 sg. -est          before it though was foremost in use.  
3 sg. -           The present tense is broken down into the persons
1, 2, 3 pl -      singular: first singular (1 sg.; I sing),
                    second singular (2 sg.; you sing), third singular
pr.part. -ende      (3 sg.; he/she/it sings). And the persons plural
                    (1, 2, 3 pl.): first plural (we sing), second
Past                plural (you sing) and third plural (they sing)
Second Grade        taken altogether because they all have the same
1, 3 sg -           inflection -. The present participle (pr.part.)
                    corresponds to any Old English verb with -ing
Third Grade         (rising, singing, etc.)
2 sg -e             In the 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grades we find the past tense  
1, 2, 3 pl -on      and past participle. In past tense the first  
                    and third persons singular go under the 2nd Grade  
Fourth Grade        and both take no inflection (indicated by the dash).
past.part. -en      The second singular and first, second, third persons
_______________     plural go under the Third Grade, the latter taken
                    altogether because they have the same inflection -on.
Optative:           Finally, the past participle (past.part.) is in
(First Grade)       the 4th Grade, and corresponds to Old taken, broken
1, 2, 3 sg -e      Optative (potentiality)          
1, 2, 3 pl -en          * sometimes called "subjunctive"
(Third Grade)       To express something potential, wished for, imagined
Past                etc, the optative is used.  It corresponds somewhat
1, 2, 3 sg -e       to saying I go meaning "I will go" later, tommorow etc,
1, 2, 3 pl -en      in contrast with I go meaning "I presently am going".
_______________     The Present takes the vowel of the First Grade.
                    The Past takes the vowel of the Third Grade.
(First Grade)      Imperative (commanding)
2 sg -                
2 pl -            The commanding voice ("Go!" "Sing me a song" etc.) is  
                    used only in the second person singular and plural.
                    It takes the same grade as the present tense.

Classes I, II, III


-In Class I the third grade and the fourth grade are the same

-In Class III we find three sub-series because the vowels differered a bit according to consonants pairs that followed them. The consonants pairs characteristically begin with a "nasal" (m or n) or "liquid" (l or r) followed by any other consonant.   The (a)-series are the vowel grades for those with the nasal-groups (bindan, climban), the majority of Class III; the (b)-series indicates those followed by l-groups (sweltan) and the (c)-series those followed by r-groups (beorgan).

-Prefixes such as ġe in ġelimpan never take the vowel grade.  They shall be indicated  without boldness: ġelimpan

    CLASS I              CLASS II             CLASS III
[i, a, i, i]        [eo, ea, u, o]      (a) [i, a, u, u]
                                         (b) [e, ea, u, o]    
                                         (c) [eo, ea, u, o]
ridan   "to ride"    creopan "to creep"   bindan   "to bind"
scinan  "to shine"   ġeotan  "to pour"    climban  "to climb"
ġewitan "to go"      dreopan "to drip"    ġelimpan "to happen"
hrinan  "to touch"   fleogan "to fly"     sweltan  "to die"
stigan  "to ascend"  neotan  "to use"     beorgan  "to protect"
            Grade i      Grade eo       Grade i, e, eo  
Infin.      ridan        creopan        bindan
            scinan       ġeotan         climban
            ġewitan      dreopan        ġelimpan
            hrinan       fleogan        sweltan
            stigan       neotan         beorgan

         to ridenne   to creopenne   to bindenne
         to scinenne  to ġeotenne    to climbenne
         to ġewitenne to dreopenne   to ġelimpenne
         to hrinenne  to fleogenne   to sweltenne
         to stigenne  to neotenne    to beorgenne


"I"      ride         creope         binde
            scine        ġeote          climbe
            ġewite       dreope         ġelimpe
            hrine        fleoge         swelte
            stige        neote          beorge

žu "you"    ridest       creopest       bindest
            scinest      ġeotest        climbest
            ġewitest     dreopest       ġelimpest
            hrinest      fleogest       sweltest
            stigest      neotest        beorgest

he/heo/hit  rideš        creopeš        bindeš
he/she/it   scineš       ġeoteš         climbeš
            ġewiteš      dreopeš        ġelimpeš
            hrineš       fleogeš        swelteš
            stigeš       neoteš         beorgeš

wee/hie   ridaš        creopaš        bindaš
we/ye/they  scinaš       ġeotaš         climbaš
            ġewitaš      dreopaš        ġelimpaš
            hrinaš       fleogaš        sweltaš
            stigaš       neotaš         beorgaš

pr.part.    ridende      creopende      bindende
            scinende     ġeotende       climbende
            ġewitende    dreopende      ġelimpende
            hrinende     fleogende      sweltende
            stigende     neotende       beorgende


            Grade a      Grade ea       Grade a, ea

iċ/         rad          creap          band
he/heo/hit  scan         ġeat           clamb
            gewat        dreap          ġelamp
            hran         fleag          swealt
            stag         neat           bearg

            Grade i      Grade u        Grade u

žu          ride         crupe          bunde
            scine        gute           clumbe
            ġewite       drupe          ġelumpe
            hrine        fluge          swulte
            stige        nute           burge

wee/hie   ridon        crupon         bundon
            scinon       guton          clumbon
            ġewiton      drupon         ġelumpon
            hrinon       flugon         swulton
            stigon       nuton          burgon

            Grade i      Grade o        Grade u, o

Past.part.  riden        cropen         bunden
            scinen       goten          clumben
            ġewiten      dropen         ġelumpen
            hrinen       flogen         swolten
            stigen       noten          borgen



           (Grade i)    (Grade eo)    (Grade i, e, eo)

1, 2, 3 sg. ride         creope         binde
            scine        ġeote          climbe
            ġewite       dreope         ġelimpe
            hrine        fleoge         swelte
            stige        neote          beorge

1, 2, 3 pl. riden        creopen        binden
            scinen       ġeoten         climben
            ġewiten      dreopen        ġelimpen
            hrinen       fleogen        swelten
            stigen       neoten         beorgen


           (Grade i)    (Grade u)     (Grade u)

1, 2, 3 sg. ride         crupe          bunde
            scine        gute           clumbe
            ġewite       drupe          ġelumpe
            hrine        fluge          swulte
            stige        nute           burge

1, 2, 3 pl. riden        crupen         bunden
            scinen       guten          clumben
            ġewiten      drupen         ġelumpen
            hrinen       flugen         swulten
            stigen       nuten          burgen


           (Grade i)    (Grade eo)    (Grade i, e, eo)

2 sg.       rid          creop          bind
            scin         ġeot           climb
            ġewit        dreop          ġelimp
            hrin         fleog          swelt
            stig         neot           beorg

2 pl.       ridaš        creopaš        bindaš
            scinaš       ġeotaš         climbaš
            ġewitaš      dreopaš        ġelimpaš
            hrinaš       fleogaš        sweltaš
            stigaš       neotaš         beorgaš


Forms like stag, fleag, bearg, often show up with final h as well: stah, fleah, bearh.


    CLASS I                 CLASS II             CLASS III

bidan   "to await"      beodan  "to command"    windan   "to wind"
cnidan  "to beat"       creodan "to crowd"      grindan  "to grind"
glidan  "to glide"      hreodan "to adorn"      hrindan  "to push"
slidan  "to slide"      leodan  "to grow"       findan   "to find"
stridan "to stride"     breotan "to break"      žindan   "to swell"
gnidan  "to rub"        sceotan "to shoot"      swingan  "to flog"
beridan "to surround"   fleotan "to float"      springan "to spring"
belidan "to cover"      greotan "to weep"       clingan  "to shrink"
bitan   "to bite"       hleotan "to cast lots"  singan   "to sing"
scitan  "to defecate"   spreotan"to sprout"     stingan  "to sting"
slitan  "to slit"       žeotan  "to howl"       žringan  "to throng"
flitan  "to dispute"    ažreotan"to tire of"    wringan  "to wring"
wlitan  "to gaze"       cleofan "to cleave"     stincan  "to stink"
hnitan  "to knock"      dreogan "to endure"     slincan  "to slink"
žwitan  "to hew"        leogan  "to tell lies"  crincan  "to fall"
writan  "to write"      smeocan "to smoke"      scrincan "to shrink"
bescitan"to befoul"     reocan  "to smoke"      swincan  "to swink"
besmitan"to defile"     breowan "to brew"       drincan  "to drink"
ętwitan "to reproach"   ceowan  "to chew"       acwincan "to vanish"
drifan  "to drive"      hreowan "to rue"        sinnan   "to meditate"
scrifan "to shrive"     geopan  "to receive"    rinnan   "to run"
clifan  "to stick"                              brinnan  "to burn"  
swifan  "to sweep"   *(2)seožan  "to seethe"    winnan   "to fight"
belifan "to remain"                             linnan   "to cease"
toslifan"to split"   *(3)freosan   "to freeze"  onginnan "to begin"
gripan  "to seize"       ċeosan    "to choose"  spinnan  "to spin"
nipan   "to darken"      dreosan   "to fall"    hlimman  "to resound"
ripan   "to reap"        forleosan "to lose"    swimman  "to swim"
strican "to stroke"      hreosan   "to fall"    crimman  "to cram"
swican  "to abandan"                            rimpan   "to wrinkle"
blican  "to shine"   *(4)brucan  "to enjoy"     helpan   "to help"
sican   "to sigh"        dufan   "to dive"      delfan   "to dig"
snican  "to crawl"       scufan  "to shove"     meltan   "to melt"  
hnigan  "to incline"     hrutan  "to snore"     swelgan  "to swallow"
migan   "to make water"  lutan   "to bow"       belgan   "to swell angrily"
sigan   "to sink"        slupan  "to slip"      swellan  "to swell"
figan   "to parch"       supan   "to sup"       bellan   "to bellow"
cinan   "to crack"       bugan   "to bow"       melcan   "to milk"
ġinan   "to yawn"        smugan  "to creep"     beteldan "to cover"
žwinan  "to grow"        strudan "to rob"      
dwinan  "to dwindle"     sucan   "to suck"  (5)* ġiellan  "to yell"
acwinan "to diminish"    lucan   "to lock"       ġielpan  "to boast"
ġerisan "to befit"                               ġieldan  "to yield"
risan   "to rise"    *(11)teon  "to draw"                      
spiwan  "to spew"         fleon "to flee"       smeortan  "to smart"
mižan   "to avoid"                              sweorfan  "to polish"
wrižan  "to twist"                              ċeorfan   "to carve"
                                                sceorfan  "to gnaw"
(1)*ližan   "to go"                             hweorfan  "to turn"
    snižan  "to cut"                            steorfan  "to die"
    scrižan "to glide"                          deorfan   "to labour"
                                                sceorpan  "to scrape"
(11)*leon  "to lend"                            weorpan   "to throw"
     teon  "to accuse"                          sweorcan  "to darken"
     seon  "to strain"                          beorcan   "to bark"
     wreon "to cover"                           georran   "to chatter"
     žeon  "to thrive'
                                            (6)* feolan   "to penetrate"

                                            (7)* weoržan  "to become"

                                            (8)* feohtan  "to fight"
                                                 abreožan "to perish"
                                                 aseolcan "to languish"

                                            (9)* breġdan   "to brandish"
                                                 streġdan  "to strew"
                                                 berstan   "to burst"
                                                 žerscan   "to thresh"
                                                 friġnan   "to ask"
                                                 spurnan   "to spurn"
                                                 murnan    "to mourn"
                                            (10)*iernan   "to run"
                                                 biernan   "to burn"
                                            (11)*žeon "to thrive

The numbered 1-11 in the vocabulary are unique groups/words that show some minor
but important differences from the normal characteristics the class each is in.  
These shall be looked at closely in the later posts.
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41 posted 11-26-2005 12:24 PM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Strong Verbs (cont'd)

Classes IV, V, VI

    CLASS IV             CLASS V              CLASS VI
  [e, ę, ę, o]        [e, ę, ę, e]          [a, o, o, a]

beran   "to bear"    metan   "to measure"   faran   "to go"
žweran  "to stir"    sprecan "to speak"     calan   "to be cold"
helan   "to conceal" wegan   "to carry"     galan   "to sing"
cwelan  "to die"     swefan  "to sleep"     wacan   "to awake"
stelan  "to steal"   cnedan  "to kneed""    spanan  "to allure"
            Grade e      Grade e       Grade a  
Infin.      beran        metan          faran
            žweran       sprecan        calan
            helan        wegan          galan
            cwelan       swefan         wacan
            stelan       cnedan         spanan

         to berenne   to metenne     to farenne
         to žwerenne  to sprecenne   to calenne
         to helenne   to wegenne     to galenne
         to cwelenne  to swefenne    to wacenne
         to stelenne  to cnedenne    to spanenne


ic "I"      bere         mete           fare
            žwere        sprece         cale
            hele         wege           gale
            cwele        swefe          wace
            stele        cnede          spane

žu "you"    berest       metest         farest
            žwerest      sprecest       calest
            helest       wegest         galest
            cwelest      swefest        wacest
            stelest      cnedest        spanest

he/heo/hit  bereš        meteš          fareš
he/she/it   žwereš       spreceš        caleš
            heleš        wegeš          galeš
            cweleš       swefeš         waceš
            steleš       cnedeš         spaneš

we/ge/hie   beraš        metaš          faraš
we/ye/they  žweraš       sprecaš        calaš
            helaš        wegaš          galaš
            cwelaš       swefaš         wacaš
            stelaš       cnedaš         spanaš

pr.part.    berende      metende        farende
            žwerende     sprecende      calende
            helende      wegende        galende
            cwelende     swefende       wacende
            stelende     cnedende       spanende


            Grade ę      Grade ę       Grade o

ic/         bęr          męt            for
he/heo/hit  žwęr         spręc          col
            hęl          węg            gol
            cwęl         swęf           woc
            stęl         cnęd           spon

            Grade ę      Grade ę        Grade o

žu          bęre         męte           fore
            žwęre        spręce         cole
            hęle         węge           gole
            cwęle        swęfe          woce
            stęle        cnęde          spone

we/ge/hie   bęron        męton          foron
            žwęron       spręcon        colon
            hęlon        węgon          golon
            cwęlon       swęfon         wocon
            stęlon       cnędon         sponon

            Grade o      Grade e        Grade a

Past.part.  boren        meten          faren
            žworen       sprecen        calen
            holen        wegen          galen
            cwolen       swefen         wacen
            stolen       cneden         spanen



           (Grade e)    (Grade e)      (Grade a)

1, 2, 3 sg. bere         mete           fare
            žwere        sprece         cale
            hele         wege           gale
            cwele        swefe          wace
            stele        cnede          spane

1, 2, 3 pl. beren        meten          faren
            žweren       sprecen        calen
            helen        wegen          galen
            cwelen       swefen         wacen
            stelen       cneden         spanen


           (Grade ę)    (Grade ę)      (Grade o)

1, 2, 3 sg. bęre         męte           fore
            žwęre        spręce         cole
            hęle         węge           gole
            cwęle        swęfe          woce
            stęle        cnęde          spone

1, 2, 3 pl. bęren        męten          foren
            žwęren       spręcen        colen
            hęlen        węgen          golen
            cwęlen       swęfen         wocen
            stęlen       cnęden         sponen


           (Grade e)    (Grade e)      (Grade a)

2 sg.       ber          met            far
            žwer         sprec          cal
            hel          weg            gal
            cwel         swef           wac
            stel         cned           span

2 pl.       beraš        metaš          faraš
            žweraš       sprecaš        calaš
            helaš        wegaš          galaš
            cwelaš       swefaš         wacaš
            stelaš       cnedaš         spanaš



    CLASS IV                CLASS V              CLASS VI

teran  "to tear"        screpan  "to scrape"     alan    "to grow"
                        tredan   "to tread"      bacan   "to bake"
* niman  "to take"      wefan    "to weave"      grafan  "to dig"
  cuman  "to come"      specan   "to speak"      hladan  "to lade"
                        wrecan   "to avenge"     sacan   "to strive"
* scieran "to shear"    lesan    "to collect"    wadan   "to go"
                        ġenesan  "to be saved"   gnagan  "to gnaw"
* brecan "to break"                              dragan  "to draw"
                       * ġiefan    "to give"     wascan  "to wash"
                         forġietan "to forget"   scacan  "to shake"
                                                 standan "to stand"
                       * etan     "to eat"
                         fretan   "to devour"   * slean  "to strike"
                                                  flean  "to flay"
                       * cwežan   "to say"        lean   "to blame"
                         wesan    "to be"         žwean  "to wash"

                       * seon     "to see"      * hebban  "to raise"
                         pleon    "to risk"       hliehan "to laugh"
                                                  scežžan "to scathe"
                       * biddan   "to pray"       scieppan "to shape"
                         licgan   "to lie down"   stęppan  "to stop"
                         sittan   "to sit"        swerian  "to swear"
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42 posted 11-26-2005 12:25 PM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Syncopation and Vowel Shift

It is important to note the second and third person present singular are often syncopated,
so that instead of berest, bereš, we often find birst, birš.  The change of vowel is understood
from the fact their inflexions were originally  -ist, -iš.  The i influenced the word's vowel,
made it change, and then disappeared, as in mann/menn.  
The vowel change is fairly predictable.  Below are examples.

The vowels shift toward the letter i

         i <__ y <__ u                   u  becomes  y:    brucan   ____>  brycst, brycš
         |                                        o  becomes  e:    growan  _____> grewst, grewš
        /|\                                       a  becomes ę:    grafan   _____> gręfst, gręfš
         |                                        e  becomes  i:     helpan   _____> hilpst, hilpš
        e <_______ o                      
         |                                        eo becomes ie:   creopan  ____>  criepst, criepš      
        /|\                                       ea becomes ie:   feallan   _____>  fielst, fielš
        ę <_______ a                        
                                                  a + n/m  becomes e: standan  ____> stentst, stent  
One expects ę ____> e as well.  Indeed this shows up in Old English,
in such correspondences as: sęt "sat" and settan "to set", lęġ "lay" and lecgan "to lay".  
In the strong verbs though in the few places an ę shows up in present tense it stays
the same in the second and third persons singular:  as in slępst, slępš.


In these syncopated forms, the following consonant changes take place as well:

Followed by -st:

        d + st become tst:              glidan _____>  glitst "glidest"

        ž/š + st become tst or st:    snižan _____>  snitst "cuttest"
                                                cwežan _____> cwist "sayest"

        s + st become st:               ċeosan _____> ċiest "choosest"

Followed by -š (or ž):

        d + š become tt/t:               glidan _____> glitt/glit "glideth"

        t + š become tt/t:                writan  _____> writt/writ "writeth"

        š + š become šš/š:            cwešan  ____> cwišš/cwiš "sayeth"

        s + š become st:                 ċeosan _____>  ċiest "choseth"

The syncopated forms take these changes.  But the unsyncopated forms
for the most part forgo them.

* Originally there was no -t in the inflexion -st.  In english, however, the second person pronoun žu "thou"
was often attatched to the end of the word.  The ž of žu gradually became one with the inflexion, and
then became  t, making -st.  Otherwise the -s corresponds with the latin -s, as as in amas "(thou) lovest"  
The third person-š, (-th) is cognate with the latin inflexion -t as in amat "(he/she/it) loveth"

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Verb Table

The next verbs are set into tables that follow the outline given below.
It is helpful in showing all the verbforms at once and which go under
each grade.

(infinitive 1), (infinitive 2)
(present participle)

   Present        |               Past
   Grade 1        |  Grade 2   |    Grade 3       |  Grade 4
                  |            |                  |
(1 sg)            | (1, 3, sg) | (2 sg)           | (past part.)
(2 sg)            |            |                  |
(3 sg)            |            | (1, 2, 3 pl)     |
(1, 2, 3 pl)      |            |                  |
                  |            | (1, 2, 3 sg opt) |
(1, 2, 3 sg opt.) |            | (1, 2, 3 pl opt) |
(1, 2, 3 pl opt.) |            |                  |
                  |            |                  |
(2 sg imp.)       |            |                  |
(2 pl imp.)       |            |                  |

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Strong Verbs (cont'd)

Class VII

Class VII is the final class, and has some mixed vowels.  The most consistent vowels are in the second and third grades that are always either e or eo.  Therefore they are set in two groups: e-verbs and eo-verbs.

Two good points to remember are:  

- Whatever vowel is in the first grade shall always be in the fourth grade as well.

- Whatever vowel is in the second grade (e or eo) shall always be in the third grade as well.


e-verbs                          eo-verbs

Hatan                        gangan

hatan, to hatenne "to call"      gangan, to gangenne "to go"
hatende "calling"                gangende "going"

Pres.  |       Past              Pres.   |        Past
       |                                 |
___1___|__2______3______4__.     .__1____|__2______ __3_______4___.
       |     |       |                   |       |         |
hate   | het | hete  | haten     gange   | geong | geonge  | gangen
hatest |     | heton |           gangest |       | geongon |
hateš  |     |       |           gangeš  |       |         |
hataš  |     | hete  |           gangaš  |       | geonge  |    
       |     | heten |                   |       | geongen |
hate   |     |       |           gange   |       |         |
haten  |     |       |           gangen  |       |         |      
       |     |       |                   |       |         |
hat    |     |       |           gang    |       |         |
hataš  |     |       |           gangaš  |       |         |

syncopated forms: hętst, hętt/hęt        syncopated forms: gengst, gengš

Other e-verbs:              Other eo-verbs:

lacan    "to play"      bannan    "to summon"  blawan  "to blow"
scadan   "to seperate"  spannan   "to join"    cnawan  "to know"
lętan    "to let"       weaxan    "to grow"    crawan  "to crow"
rędan    "to advise"    weallan   "to boil"    sawan   "to sow"
ondrędan "to dread"     sealtan   "to salt"    swapan  "to sweep"
slępan   "to sleep"     wealdan   "to rule"    žrawan  "to turn"
blandan  "to mix"       wealcan   "to roll"    wawan   "to blow"
                        stealdan  "to have"    beatan  "to beat"
* fon "to seize"        healdan   "to hold"    hleapan "to leap"
  hon "to hang"         fealdan   "to fold"    heawan  "to hew"
                        wrotan  "to root up"   glowan  "to glow"
                        blotan  "to sacrifice" flowan  "to flow"
                        blowan  "to bloom"     growan  "to grow"
                        hropan  "to shout"     hlowan  "to low"
                        hwopan  "to threaten"  rowan   "to row"
                        spowan  "to succeed"   wepan   "to weep"
                        flocan  "to clap"      swogan  "to sough"    
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Specified Strong Verbs

In the vocabularies for Class I-VII the verbs marked with * are some verbs that need specification about unique differences they show, that other verbs of their class do not.  

The specified strong verbs are set into the following groups:

(1)  ž ____> d

     The first group includes 6 verbs.  
     These verbs have a ž in the First and Second Grades
     that shows up as d in the third and fourth Grades.      
     Other than that each verb behaves exactly
     as any other verb in the class it comes from.    
     The class a verb comes from is indicated
     in the brackets.

ližan (I)                    snižan (I)

ližan, to liženne "to go"        snižan, to sniženne "to cut"
ližende "going"                  snižende "cutting"

Pres.  |       Past              Pres.   |        Past
       |                                 |
___1___|__2______3______4__.     .__1____|__2______ 3_______4___.
       |     |       |                   |      |        |
liže   | laž | lide  | liden     sniže   | snaž | snide  | sniden
ližest |     | lidon |           snižest |      | snidon |
ližeš  |     |       |           snižeš  |      |        |
ližaš  |     | lide  |           snižaš  |      | snide  |    
       |     | liden |                   |      | sniden |
liže   |     |       |           sniže   |      |        |
ližen  |     |       |           snižen  |      |        |      
       |     |       |                   |      |        |
liž    |     |       |           sniž    |      |        |
ližaš  |     |       |           snižaš  |      |        |

scrižan (I)                    seožan (II)
scrižan, to scriženne "to glide"     seožan, to seoženne "to seethe"    
scrižende "gliding"                  seožende "seething"    

Pres.    |         Past              Pres.   |        Past
         |                                   |  
.__1____ |__2________3_______4___.   .__1____|__2______ 3______4___.
         |       |        |                  |      |       |
scriže   | scraž | snide  | sniden   seože   | se | sude  | soden
scrižest |       | snidon |          seožest |      | sudon |
scrižeš  |       |        |          seožeš  |      |       |
scrižaš  |       | snide  |          seožaš  |      | sude  |      
         |       | sniden |                  |      | suden |
scriže   |       |        |          seože   |      |       |
scrižen  |       |        |          seožen  |      |       |
         |       |        |                  |      |       |
scriž    |       |        |          se    |      |       |
scrižaš  |       |        |          seožaš  |      |       |

weoržan (III)                  cwežan (V)

weoržan, to weorženne "to become"    cwežan, to cweženne "to say"    
weoržende "becoming"                 cwežende "saying"    

Pres.    |         Past              Pres.   |        Past
         |                                   |
.__1____ |__2________3_______4___.   .__1____|__2______ 3______4___.
         |       |        |                  |      |        |
weorže   | wearž | wurde  | worden   cweže   | cwęž | cwęde  | cweden
weoržest |       | wurdon |          cwežest |      | cwędon |
weoržeš  |       |        |          cwežeš  |      |        |
weoržaš  |       | wurde  |          cwežaš  |      | cwęde  |      
         |       | wurden |                  |      | cwęden |
weorže   |       |        |          cweže   |      |        |
weoržen  |       |        |          cwežen  |      |        |
         |       |        |                  |      |        |
weorž    |       |        |          cwež    |      |        |
weoržaš  |       |        |          cwežaš  |      |        |

(2)  s ____> r

     The second group includes 6 verbs.  
     These verbs have an s in the First and Second Grades
     that shows up as an r in the third and fourth Grades.

freosan (II)                    ceosan (II)

freosan, to freosenne "to freeze"     ċeosan, to ċeosenne "to choose"
freosende "freezing"                  ċeosende "choosing"

Pres.    |      Past                  Pres.   |        Past
         |                                    |
___1_____|___2_______3______4___.    .___1____|__2______ 3_______4___.
         |       |        |                   |      |        |
freose   | freas | frure  | froren    ċeose   | ċeas | cure   | coren
freosest |       | fruron |           ċeosest |      | curon  |
freoseš  |       |        |           ċeoseš  |      |        |
freosaš  |       | frure  |           ċeosaš  |      | cure   |    
         |       | fruren |                   |      | curen  |
freose   |       |        |           ċeose   |      |        |
freosen  |       |        |           ċeosen  |      |        |      
         |       |        |                   |      |        |
freos    |       |        |           ċeos    |      |        |
freosaš  |       |        |           ċeosaš  |      |        |

          dreosan (II)
          dreosan, to dreosenne "to fall"        
          dreosende "falling"

          Pres.    |         Past              
          .__1____ |__2________3_______4___.  
                   |       |        |                
          dreose   | dreas | drure  | droren  
          dreosest |       | druron |        
          dreoseš  |       |        |        
          dreosaš  |       | drure  |            
                   |       | druren |          
          dreose   |       |        |        
          dreosen  |       |        |        
                   |       |        |        
          dreos    |       |        |        
          dreosaš  |       |        |

         forleosan (II)

         forleosan, to forleosenne "to forlose"
         forleosende "forlosing"
         Pres.      |            Past
                    |         |          |
         forleose   | forleas | forlure  | forloren
         forleosest |         | forluron |
         forleoseš  |         |          |
         forleosaš  |         | forlure  |
                    |         | forluren |
         forleose   |         |          |
         forleosen  |         |          |
                    |         |          |
         forleos    |         |          |
         forleosaš  |         |          |

hreosan (II)                   wesan (V)
hreosan, to hreosenne "to fall"      wesan,  -  "to be"    
hreosende "falling"                  wesende "being"    

Pres.    |         Past              Pres.   |        Past
         |                                   |
.__1____ |__2________3_______4___.   .__1____|__2______ 3_____4___.
         |       |        |                  |      |       |
hreose   | hreas | hrure  | hroren      _    | węs  | węre  |
hreosest |       | hruron |             _    |      | węron |
hreoseš  |       |        |             _    |      |       |
hreosaš  |       | hrure  |             _    |      | węre  |      
         |       | hruren |                  |      | węren |
hreose   |       |        |             -    |      |       |
hreosen  |       |        |             -    |      |       |
         |       |        |                  |      |       |
hreos    |       |        |          wes     |      |       |
hreosaš  |       |        |          wesaš   |      |       |

* The missing forms under wesan "to be"
   are made up from other forms: eom "am" eart "art"
   is "is" just as in Old English.  

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Specified Strong Verbs (cont'd)

u instead of eo

This group includes 12 verbs of Class II.   Instead of the conventional eo (as in creopan "to creep") that is found in the First Grade of verbs in class II, the following verbs have u: brucan "to enjoy", dufan "to dive", scufan "to shove", hrutan  "to snore", lutan   "to bow", slupan  "to slip", supan   "to sup", bugan   "to bow" , smugan  "to creep", strudan "to rob", sucan   "to suck", lucan   "to lock"   The  Second, Third and Fourth Grades of these are exactly the same as the verbs that show up with the eo

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Additional i and e.
In the following 7 verbs a special letter i shows up after the "soft" pronunciation of ġ (pronounced like the y in yellow) and sc (pronounced like the sh in sheep) when they were followed by e.
The class a verb comes from is indicated in the brackets.

ġiellan "to yell" (III)
ġielpan "to yelp" (III)
ġieldan "to yield" (III)
ġiefan "to give" (V)
forġietan "to forget" (V)
scieran "to shear" (IV)
scieppan "to shape" (VI)

As well, a special letter e shows up after the "soft" pronunciation of ġ and sc when followed by ę (the ę therewith then shows up as a).

For example, for the Class V verb ġiefan "to give" in Grade ę and Grade ę we find ġeaf, ġeafe, ġeafon, ġeafen instead of ġęf, ġęfe, ġęfon, ġęfen

The additional letters i and e in these words is interpreted as a letter and sound brought forth by the "soft" pronunciation of the letters ġ and sc.

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Contracted Verbs

The next strong verbs are different because they originally ended with h.  Eventually this h was dropped when they took an inflection beginning with a vowel, and the vowel of the inflection was then contracted with or absorbed into the vowel of the words. Therefore *fleohan became fleon, where the a of the inflection an is merged into eo.  When an inflection that didn't begin with a vowel or no inflection was added then the h remained, as the imperative fleoh "flee!" and second and third singular (always with syncopation and i-umlaut): fliehst and fliehš.  G instead of h usually shows up in the third and fourth grades.  But in the contracted verbs from Classes VI and VII it shows up in the second grade as well.

Class:  I       II       III     IV       V       VI       VII  
        leon    fleon    žeon  
(none)   seon     flean    fon
        teon    teon                     feon     slean    hon
        seon                             pleon    žwean
        wreon                                     lean

From Class I

leon (I)                      teon (I)

leon, to leonne "to lend"        teon, to teonne "to accuse"
leonde "lending"                 teonde "accusing"

Pres.  |       Past              Pres.   |        Past
       |                                 |
___1___|__2______3______4__.     .__1____|__2________3_______4___.
       |     |       |                   |       |        |
leo    | lah | lige  | ligen     teo     | tah   | tige   | tigen
liehst |     | ligon |           tiehst  |       | tigon  |
liehš  |     |       |           tiehš   |       |        |
le   |     | lige  |           te    |       | tige   |    
       |     | ligen |                   |       | tigen  |
leo    |     |       |           teo     |       |        |
leon   |     |       |           teon    |       |        |      
       |     |       |                   |       |        |
leoh   |     |       |           teoh    |       |        |
le   |     |       |           te    |       |        |

seon (I)                      wreon (I)

seon, to seonne "to strain"      wreon, to wreonne "to cover"
seonde "straining"               wreonde "covering"

Pres.  |       Past              Pres.   |        Past
       |                                 |
___1___|__2______3______4__.     .__1____|__2________3_______4___.
       |     |       |                   |       |        |
seo    | sah | sige  | sigen     wreo    | wrah  | wrige  | wrigen
siehst |     | sigon |           wriehst |       | wrigon |
siehš  |     |       |           wriehš  |       |        |
se   |     | sige  |           wre   |       | wrige  |    
       |     | sigen |                   |       | wrigen |
seo    |     |       |           wreo    |       |        |
seon   |     |       |           wreon   |       |        |      
       |     |       |                   |       |        |
seoh   |     |       |           wreoh   |       |        |
se   |     |       |           wre   |       |        |

              žeon (I)

              žeon, to žeonne "to thrive"      
              žeonde "thriving"              

              Pres.  |       Past              
                     |     |       |                  
              žeo    | žah | žige  | žigen    
              žiehst |     | žigon |          
              žiehš  |     |       |          
              že   |     | žige  |              
                     |     | žigen |                  
              žeo    |     |       |          
              žeon   |     |       |              
                     |     |       |                  
              žeoh   |     |       |          
              že   |     |       |  

From Class II

fleon (II)                      teon (II)

fleon, to fleonne "to flee"         teon,  to teonne "to draw"
fleonde "fleeing"                   teonde "drawing"

Pres.  |       Past                 Pres.  |        Past
       |                                   |
___1___|__2________3______4___.    .___1___|___2______3_______4___.
       |       |        |                  |      |       |
fleo   | fleah | fluge  | flogen    teo    | teah | tuge  | togen
fliehst|       | flugon |           tiehst |      | tugon |
fliehš |       |        |           tiehš  |      |       |
fle  |       | fluge  |           te   |      | tuge  |    
       |       | flugen |                  |      | tugen |
fleo   |       |        |           teo    |      |       |
fleon  |       |        |           teon   |      |       |      
       |       |        |                  |      |       |
fleoh  |       |        |           teoh   |      |       |
fle  |       |        |           te   |      |       |

From Class III

žeon also shows up in Class III with some differences.
An original n of this word is preserved in the third
and fourth grades.  In the first and second grades though
this n disappeared.


              žeon (III)

              žeon, to žeonne "to thrive"      
              žeonde "thriving"              

              Pres.  |       Past              
                     |     |        |                  
              žeo    |*žoh | žunge  | žungen    
              žiehst |     | žungon |          
              žiehš  |     |        |          
              že   |     | žunge  |              
                     |     | žungen |                  
              žeo    |     |        |          
              žeon   |     |        |              
                     |     |        |                  
              žeoh   |     |        |          
              že   |     |        |      

From Class V

Seon "to see" has w in the third and fourth grades instead of g.

seon (V)                      feon (V)

seon, to seonne "to see"         feon, to feonne "to rejoice"
seonde "seeing"                  feonde "rejoicing"

Pres.  |       Past              Pres.   |        Past
       |                                 |
___1___|__2______3______4___.    .__1____|__2________3_______4___.
       |      |       |                  |       |        |
seo    | seah | sawe  | sewen     feo    | feah  | fęge   | fegen
siehst |      | sawon |           fiehst |       | fęgon  |
siehš  |      |       |           fiehš  |       |        |
se   |      | sawe  |           fe   |       | fęge   |    
       |      | sawen |                  |       | fęgen  |
seo    |      |       |           feo    |       |        |
seon   |      |       |           feon   |       |        |      
       |      |       |                  |       |        |
seoh   |      |       |           feoh   |       |        |
se   |      |       |           fe   |       |        |

              pleon (V)

              pleon, to pleonne "to risk"      
              pleonde "risking"              

              Pres.   |       Past              
                      |       |        |                  
              pleo    | pleah | plęge  | plegen    
              pliehst |       | plęgon |          
              pliehš  |       |        |          
              ple   |       | plęge  |              
                      |       | plęgen |                  
              pleo    |       |        |          
              pleon   |       |        |              
                      |       |        |                  
              pleoh   |       |        |          
              ple   |       |        |  

From Class VI

The below verbs usually have g instead of h in the Second grade.

flean (VI)                      slean (VI)

flean, to fleanne "to flay"         slean,  to sleanne "to strike"
fleande "flaying"                   sleande "striking"

Pres.  |       Past                 Pres.   |        Past
       |                                    |
___1___|__2________3______4___.    .___1____|___2______3_______4___.
       |       |        |                   |      |        |
flea   | flog  | floge  | flagen    slea    | slog | sloge  | slagen
fliehst|       | flogon |           sliehst |      | slogon |
fliehš |       |        |           sliehš  |      |        |
fle  |       | floge  |           sle   |      | sloge  |    
       |       | flogen |                   |      | slogen |
flea   |       |        |           slea    |      |        |
flean  |       |        |           slean   |      |        |      
       |       |        |                   |      |        |
fleah  |       |        |           sleah   |      |        |
fle  |       |        |           sle   |      |        |

žwean (VI)                      lean (VI)

žwean, to žweanne "to wash"         lean,  to leanne "to blame"
žweande "washing"                   leande "blaming"

Pres.  |       Past                 Pres.   |        Past
       |                                    |
___1___|__2________3______4___.    .___1____|___2______3_______4___.
       |       |        |                   |      |        |
žwea   | žwog  | žwoge  | žwagen    lea     | log  | loge   | lagen
žwiehst|       | žwogon |           liehst  |      | logon  |
žwiehš |       |        |           liehš   |      |        |
žwe  |       | žwoge  |           le    |      | loge   |    
       |       | žwogen |                   |      | logen  |
žwea   |       |        |           lea     |      |        |
žwean  |       |        |           lean    |      |        |      
       |       |        |                   |      |        |
žweah  |       |        |           leah    |      |        |
žwe  |       |        |           le    |      |        |

From Class VII

In fon "to seize" and hon "to hang" an original n is
preserved in the second, third and fourth grades.  
In the first grade though this n disappeared.

fon (VII)                      hon (VII)

fon, to fonne "to seize"         hon, to honne "to hang"
fonde "seizing"                  honde "hanging"

Pres. |       Past                Pres   |        Past
      |                                  |
__1___|__2______3_______4__.     .__1____|__2________3_______4___.
      |      |        |                  |       |        |
fo    | feng | fenge  | fangen    ho     | heng  | henge  | hangen
fehst |      | fengon |           hehst  |       | hengon |
fe  |      |        |           he   |       |        |
foš   |      | fenge  |           hoš    |       | henge  |  
      |      | fengen |                  |       | hengen |
fo    |      |        |           ho     |       |        |
fon   |      |        |           hon    |       |        |      
      |      |        |                  |       |        |
foh   |      |        |           hoh    |       |        |
foš   |      |        |           hoš    |       |        |

* Verbs of Class I sometimes show up with second, third and fourth grades that belong to class II,
Thus wreah beside wrah, žeah beside žah, et cetera.

[This message has been edited by Essorant (05-08-2006 02:18 AM).]

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Miscellany from Class III

The next verbs are all from Class III and differ in one way or another from the regular pattern.

As we ere said Class III verbs regularly have vowel grades followed by consonant-pairs that begin with a "nasal" (m or n) or "liquid" (l or r).

Below, the verbs breġdan, streġdan, friġnan, and feohtan, however,  do not have regular consonant pairs.  And berstan, žerscan, murnan, spurnan, iernan and biernan don't have the usual eo (as in beorgan) before an r-group .  Aseolcan on the other hand doesn't have the usual e (as in helpan) before an l-group.

Finally feolan (from earlier *feolhan) is just like a "contracted verb".
An h shows up in some forms (as in fielhst) and g in others (as in fulge)


Note also how the vowel is sometimes underlined in some forms of the verb feolon indicating a long sound.   Class III verbs don't regularly have any long vowel-grades.  But whereever the h (or g in some cases) disappeared from forms of this verb the vowel in response became long/lengthened, further making it differ from other Class III verbs.  Along the same behavior, breġdan, streġdan, and friġnan sometimes show up as bredan, stredan, and frinan with long/lengthened vowels after the loss of  g throughout their whole conjugations.

breġdan (III)                 streġdan (III)

breġdan,to breġdenne "to brandish"  streġdan,to streġdenne "to strew"
breġdende "brandishing"             streġdende "strewing"

Pres.    |       Past                Pres.  |        Past
         |                                  |
___1_____|__2______3_______4___.  .___1_____|___2______3________4___.
         |     |        |                   |      |         |
breġde   |bręġd| brugde |brogden   streġde  |stręġd| strugde |strogden
breġdest |     | brugdon|          streġdest|      | strugdon|
breġdeš  |     |        |          streġdeš |      |         |
breġdaš  |     | brugde |          streġdaš |      | strugde |    
         |     | brugden|                   |      | strugden|
breġde   |     |        |          streġde  |      |         |
breġden  |     |        |          streġden |      |         |      
         |     |        |                   |      |         |
breġd    |     |        |          streġd   |      |         |
breġdaš  |     |        |          streġdaš |      |         |
syncopated forms: briġtst, briġtt/briġt        syncopated forms: striġtst, striġtt/strigt

berstan (III)                   žerscan (III)

berstan, to berstenne "to burst"     žerscan,  to žerscenne "to thresh"
berstende "bursting"                 žerscende "threshing"

Pres.    |        Past                 Pres.  |        Past
         |                                    |
___1_____|___2_______3______4___.   .___1_____|___2______3_______4___.
         |      |        |                    |      |         |
berste   |bęrst | burste | borsten   žersce   |žęrsc | žursce  | žorscen
berstest |      | burston|           žerscest |      | žurscon |
bersteš  |      |        |           žersceš  |      |         |
berstaš  |      | burste |           žerscaš  |      | žursce  |    
         |      | bursten|                    |      | žurscen |
berste   |      |        |           žersce   |      |         |
bersten  |      |        |           žerscen  |      |         |      
         |      |        |                    |      |         |
berst    |      |        |           žersc    |      |         |
berstaš  |      |        |           žerscaš  |      |         |
syncopated forms: birst, birstt/birst          syncopated forms: žirscst, žirscš

friġnan (III)                 aseolcan (III)

friġnan,to friġnenne "to ask"      aseolcan,to aseolcenne "to languish"
friġnende "asking"                 aseolcende "languishing"

Pres.    |       Past                Pres.  |        Past
         |                                  |
___1_____|__2______3_______4___.  .___1_____|___2______3________4___.
         |     |        |                   |      |         |
friġne   |fręġn| frugne |frugnen   aseolce  |asealc| asulce  |asolcen
friġnest |     | frugnon|          aseolcest|      | asulcon |
friġneš  |     |        |          aseolceš |      |         |
friġnaš  |     | frugne |          aseolcaš |      | asulce  |    
         |     | frugnen|                   |      | asulcen |
friġne   |     |        |          aseolce  |      |         |
friġnen  |     |        |          aseolcen |      |         |      
         |     |        |                   |      |         |
friġn    |     |        |          aseolc   |      |         |
friġnaš  |     |        |          aseolcaš |      |         |
syncopated forms: friġnst, friġnš              syncopated forms: asielcst, asielcš

murnan (III)                 spurnan (III)

murnan,to murnenne "to mourn"     spurnan,to spurnenne "to spurn"
murnende "mourning"               spurnende "spurning"

Pres.   |       Past                Pres.  |        Past
        |                                  |
___1____|__2______3_______4___.  .___1_____|___2______3________4___.
        |     |        |                   |      |         |
murne   |mearn| murne  |mornen    spurne   |spearn| spurne  |spornen
murnest |     | murnon |          spurnest |      | spurnon |
murneš  |     |        |          spurneš  |      |         |
murnaš  |     | murne  |          spurnaš  |      | spurne  |    
        |     | murnen |                   |      | spurnen |
murne   |     |        |          spurne   |      |         |
murnen  |     |        |          spurnen  |      |         |      
        |     |        |                   |      |         |
murn    |     |        |          spurn    |      |         |
murnaš  |     |        |          spurnaš  |      |         |
syncopated forms: myrnst, myrnš              syncopated forms: spyrnst, spyrnš

feohtan (III)                 feolan (III)

feohtan,to feohtenne "to fight"    feolan,to feolenne "to reach"
feohtende "fighting"               feolende "reaching"

Pres.    |       Past                Pres.  |        Past
         |                                  |
___1_____|__2______3_______4___.  .___1_____|___2______3________4___.
         |     |        |                   |      |         |
feohte   |feaht| fuhte  |fohten    feole    |fealh | fulge   |folgen
feohtest |     | fuhton |          fielhst  |      | fulgon  |
feohteš  |     |        |          fielhš   |      |         |
feohtaš  |     | fuhte  |          feolaš   |      | fulge   |    
         |     | fuhten |                   |      | fulgen  |
feohte   |     |        |          feole    |      |         |
feohten  |     |        |          feolen   |      |         |      
         |     |        |                   |      |         |
feoht    |     |        |          feol     |      |         |
feohtaš  |     |        |          feolaš   |      |         |
syncopated forms: fiehtst, fiehtt/fieht

iernan (III)                 biernan (III)

iernan,to iernenne "to run"      biernan,to biernenne "to burn"
iernende "running"               biernende "burning"

Pres.   |       Past                Pres.  |        Past
        |                                  |
___1____|__2______3_______4___.  .___1_____|___2______3________4___.
        |     |        |                   |      |         |
ierne   |arn  | urne   |urnen     bierne   |barn  | burne   |burnen
iernest |     | urnon  |          biernest |      | burnon  |
ierneš  |     |        |          bierneš  |      |         |
iernaš  |     | urne   |          biernaš  |      | burne   |    
        |     | urnen  |                   |      | burnen  |
ierne   |     |        |          bierne   |      |         |
iernen  |     |        |          biernen  |      |         |      
        |     |        |                   |      |         |
iern    |     |        |          biern    |      |         |
iernaš  |     |        |          biernaš  |      |         |
syncopated forms: iernst, iernš              syncopated forms: biernst, biernš

* Feolan also shows up with vowel-grades that make it look like a Class IV verb: felan, fęl, fęlon, folen.  
Most of the vowels have lengthening from the loss of h or g.


Linguistics. Transposition within a word of letters, sounds, or syllables, as in the change from Old English brid to modern English bird or in the confusion of modren for modern. [from]

iernan, biernan, berstan and žerscan are among some words that show metathesis with the letter r and correspond to other forms without metathesis:

Metathesis after the vowel:

gręs/gęrs "grass"
frost/forst "frost"
wręnna/węrna "wren"
hręn/hęrn "wave"
(0ld Saxon hros)/hors "horse"
frosc/forsc "frog"
brastlian/bęrstlian "crackle"
brinnan/biernan "to burn"
žrescan/žerscan "thresh"
rinnan/iernan "to run"
žridda/žirdda "third
brid/(later bird) "bird"

Metathesis before the vowel:

forht/froht "frightened"
beorht/breaht "bright"
worhte/wrohte "wrought"
berstan/(Old Saxon brestan "burst")
fersc/ (later fresh)

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