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Passions in Poetry

A Linguistic Question

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Essorant
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since 08-10-2002
Posts 4689
Regina, Saskatchewan; Canada


25 posted 12-03-2005 01:25 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Here is a proposal for a new approach to the English Language:  





                           English
                               |
                  THEN         |       NOW
           ____________________|__________________________>
          500      1100      1500                Present      
             Young:    Middle: |       Old:
                   e.g.        |  (all words native
              mus       mous   |  and foreign, that
              sunu      sone   |  were also in Young
                               |  and Middle English):
              (all words from  |       e.g.
             the anglo-saxon   |    Native:  knight
             and middle english|             wisdom
              periods.)        |    Foreign: boy
                               |             philosophy
                               |       New:
                               |  (all words that
                               |   were not in Young
                                   or Middle English):
                                       e.g.
                                       Internet
                                       Telephone
                                       coffee
                                       cyberspace

                                  



  

Essorant
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since 08-10-2002
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26 posted 03-10-2006 12:44 PM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Translating (Wending) the Sciences (Knowledges) and Arts (Crafts) Back into English.

Below is an attempt at wending knowledge's names and art's back into English.  The suggestion that native English is inferior is groundless.  Less syllables and ability to recognize the meaning of the word more strongly, to use a more consistent group of English end-words -dom and -craft  are a few things I believe are strengths in using English words instead of foreign ones.


   
Foreign             Native
"English"           English


Philosophy          Wisdom
Spirituality        Ghostdom
Literature          Bookcraft
Agriculture         Acrecraft
Science             Knowledge
Religion            Belief
Theatre/acting      Playcraft
Biology             Lifecraft
Astronomy           Starcraft
                or  Tunglecraft
                   (Tungle from Young English
                    Tungol "star")
Psychology          Moodcraft
Theology            Godcraft
Music               Songcraft
Poetry              Leethcraft
                   (Leeth from Young English
                    Leoð "poem")
Linguistics         Tonguecraft
Medicine            Leechcraft
                   (Leech from Young English
                    Læce "healer")
Grammar             Staffcraft
                   (Staff from Young English
                    Stæf "letter")
Journalism          Newscraft
Meteorology         Weathercraft
Arithmetic          Rhymecraft
                   (Rhyme from Young English
                    Rim "number")
Argument/logic/     Flitcraft
  debate           (Flit from Young English
                    Flit "dispute")
Manual Art          Smithcraft
Mechanics           Workcraft
Magic               Witchcraft
   

[This message has been edited by Essorant (03-12-2006 01:18 AM).]

Knubian
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since 03-25-2006
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27 posted 03-25-2006 12:51 PM       View Profile for Knubian   Email Knubian   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Knubian's Home Page   View IP for Knubian

I don’t think any word is an adopted English word simply because it is given an English definition. Didn’t our use of languages as far as we know originate in Greece, then to Rome, then to England, then here, along with there definitions?

If we should limited our ways of thinking in turn of what belongs to the world, and what is for the general use of Americans, our own words, “Native English”, would that not reduce us to American Indian and Spanish?  Anything after that was all imported here over our meager 515 years since Columbus?

And always remember, as powerful as America is, it is still in its infancy – a continuing melting pot of past and new cultures.  The United States is the youngest country, or close to being the youngest on the planet, with very little history, respectively… and no true language of its own, except those mentioned above.  

It all came from somewhere else.  Originally people came here as an extension of the Crown, so they brought their own diction with them, but our history tells us that subsequent immigrants included full and partial measurements of their history into the pot.   Theirs and our ancestors’ languages and culture are the structure and back-bone that this country was founded on.  

Therefore, all languages is inheritently ours by inclusion by and of those individuals whom sought and are still seeking peace, asylum, justice, new lives, better jobs, freedom, etc…  

I think it was best said by late arrival, which of us is truly pure American today, in 2006?  

Regards,
Knubian

latearrival
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28 posted 04-24-2006 10:56 AM       View Profile for latearrival   Email latearrival   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems  View IP for latearrival

Knubian, Thank you for validating me. It feels good to know that someone understands my thoughts. martyjo
Essorant
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29 posted 04-24-2006 03:18 PM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

"Didn’t our use of languages as far as we know originate in Greece, then to Rome, then to England, then here, along with there definitions?"

The dialects that became English came from Germanic/Teutonic Europe, where the Angles, Saxons and Jutes, and Frisians and other Germanic tribes lived.  After coming to Britain these dialects slightly changed shape and became the English language.  They didn't come from Latin or Greek at all.  The only Latin or Greek that was among the English back then was minimal borrowings .  Not at all like the excess we find today.  


Essorant
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30 posted 04-26-2006 05:06 PM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Wending the Adjectives back into English.

Below we may see how almost any noun that has a corresponding latinish or greekish adjective used to express the meaning "of, relating to, having the qualities of" the corresponding noun, may have an english adjective instead by using the english suffix -ly on the noun itself.  Not only does this remove the confusion of adjectives being based on completly different forms, but it avoids the confusion of so many suffixes such as -ous, -ic, -ine, -al, -ary, (that all mean basically the same thing) by using only one simply and consistently.


Noun                Adjective
  

English      Foreign           English
 



Moon         Lunar             Moonly
Sun          Solar             Sunly
Water        Aquatic           Waterly
Sea          Marine            Sealy
Flood        Diluvian          Floodly
Tree         Arboreous         Treely
Seed         Seminal           Seedly
Heaven       Celestial         Heavenly
Earth        Terranean         Earthly
Morning      Matutinal         Mornly
Day          Diurnal           Daily
Even         Vespertine        Evenly
Night        Nocturnal         Nightly
Head         Capital           Headly
Mind         Mental            Mindly
Eye          Ocular            Eyely
Ear          Aural             Early
Nose         Nasal             Nosely
Mouth        Oral              Mouthly
Lip          labial            Liply
Tooth        Dental            Toothly
Heart        Cardiac           Heartly
Lung         Pulmonary         Lungly
Finger       Digital           Fingerly
Steven       Vocal             Stevenly
Hand         Manual            Handly
Foot         Pedal             Footly
Church       Eccesiastical     Churchly
Bishop       Episcopal         Bishoply
King         Regal             Kingly
Friend       Amiable           Friendly
Love         Amorous           Lovely
House        Domestic          Housely
Father       Paternal          Fatherly
Mother       Maternal          Motherly
Brother      Fraternal         Brotherly
Sister       Sororal           Sisterly
Deed         Actual            Deedly
Word         Verbal            Wordly
Stephanos
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since 07-31-2000
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31 posted 04-26-2006 05:36 PM       View Profile for Stephanos   Email Stephanos   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Stephanos's Home Page   View IP for Stephanos

quote:
Not only does this remove the confusion of adjectives being based on completly different forms, but it avoids the confusion of so many suffixes such as -ous, -ic, -ine, -al, -ary


Essorant,

Variation may be considered "confusion", but it may also be considered enrichment.  I think that the literary power of the English Language would be diminished by what you are proposing.  I, for one, am glad of all the influxes which have produced what we know today as "English".


Did you ever notice that all of the adjectives in your far right list, sound monotonously the same?  The form never changing, makes for boring speech in my opinion.


Stephen.
Essorant
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32 posted 04-26-2006 06:48 PM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

The "variation" is already in full force Stephanos. No one is going to remove it; especially not I.  
I just don't think English speakers should be bound and locked into using an adjective like ecclesiastical to correspond to the word church, and cardiac to correspond to heart.   There's no reason why an English speaker that likes simplicity and consistency shouldn't be able to use churchly to correspond to church, and heartly to correspond to heart, the same way as ecclesiastical originally corresponds to ecclesia, marine "of the sea" to mare "sea", and arboreous to arbor.  We should make it well known that the earliest speakers of English used adjectives formed from nouns in just this way, because it is only natural that an adjective formed from a noun should be used with the noun it corresponds with in root and form(mouth and mouthly, instead of mouth and oral). Anyone that likes variation of forms though may use it within their own discretion.  But they shouldn't enforce that variation on others, and then make out anything else as if it is less and out of place.

English already had a great variety for adjectives and ways to form adjectives before the excess of foreign ones came and made so many disappear.
http://piptalk.com/pip/Forum32/HTML/000202-2.html#34

[This message has been edited by Essorant (04-26-2006 09:36 PM).]

Stephanos
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33 posted 04-26-2006 11:10 PM       View Profile for Stephanos   Email Stephanos   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Stephanos's Home Page   View IP for Stephanos

Essorant,

Fair enough, if your intent is to restore what's old rather than to replace what's new.  Sorry I misunderstood your intentions.  But I think the formation and popularization of language is a macro thing which is (for all practical purposes) beyond our control.

Stephen.
Essorant
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since 08-10-2002
Posts 4689
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34 posted 04-26-2006 11:43 PM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Indeed; we may not be able to control language, but we may influence it.
Essorant
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35 posted 05-21-2006 02:43 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Here are some words I hope may be revived into the English tongue. Some I only knew from earlier spelling-forms, but thro judging other words that came into later spellings they were given modern-looking shapes so that they chime with modern sounds and spellings and so they may be read by common folks.  My opinion is, even if my "translation" from the earlier spelling isn't as good as evolution's it is still better than abandening so many native words, and ones so unique and lovely as those below.  



athel     "noble"         ore      "honour"        ead      "riches"
ethel     "homeland"      steven   "voice"         eady     "happy"
frood     "old"           sweven   "dream"         healend  "savior"
theed     "people"        tungle   "star"          leech    "physician"
frover    "comfort"       thester  "darkness"      wastum   "fruit"
frith     "peace"         ovet     "fruit"         hurst    "ornament"
lief      "dear"          andlit   "face"          ellen    "courage"
leeth     "poem"          sooth    "truth"         flit     "dispute"
gleed     "ember"         rede     "advice"        wharve   "to turn"
fromth    "origin"        frem     "to perform"    shild    "offence"
tharf     "need"          wem      "to currupt"    nith     "strife"
gore      "spear"         woop     "weeping"       sith     "journey"
gouth     "war"           andward  "present"       sare     "skill"
shalk     "servant"       gleng    "ornament"      quid     "saying"
lich      "corpse"        lorrow   "teacher"       yed      "song"
michel    "large"         sway     "sound"         anseen   "face"
swink     "toil"          swail    "sky"           angin    "beginning"
thild     "patience"      wolder   "glory"         nesh     "soft"
yare      "ready"         drighten "lord"          ovost    "haste"
sye       "victory"       idess    "woman"         fultom   "help"
welly     "rich"          ween     "expectation"   douth    "nobles"
bloot     "sacrifice"     arist    "resurrection"  dright   "multitude"
beet      "boast"         glew     "wise"          litty    "beautiful"
andet     "to confess"    bairn    "child"         leam     "light"
blee      "colour"        sib      "peace"         swair   "motherinlaw"
swickle   "deceitful"     thankle  "thoughtful"    yode     "went"
here      "army"          mere     "sea"           wed      "pledge"
hye       "mind"          frea     "lord"          ambight  "servant"
maith     "province"      wrixle   "exchange"      quild   "destruction"
liss      "grace"         thrim    "multitude"     smolt    "peaceful"
edder     "artery"        fey      "fated"         evest    "envy"
whalf     "concave"       wale     "slaughter"     stound   "moment"
wham      "corner"        seath    "pit"           dight   "arrangement"
setness   "composition"   orlay    "fate"          wyrd     "fate"
flard     "nonsense"      firen    "crime"         swith    "very"
attle     "terrible"      arn      "building"      bive     "to tremble"
hild      "war"           atew     "to reveal"     furn     "ancient"
swelt     "to die"        soken    "inquiry"       wich     "dwelling"
snell     "smart"         snotter  "prudent"       oad      "pile"
        


[This message has been edited by Essorant (05-23-2006 01:05 PM).]

Essorant
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36 posted 05-22-2006 04:16 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant


rord      "speech"        grith    "truce"         torn     "anger"
shop      "poet"          teen     "injury"        soom    "arbitration"
wite      "punishment"    ettle    "voracious"     throwing "suffering"
foor      "voyage"        gole     "wantoness"     hattle   "hostile
win       "joy"           tudder   "offspring"     bismer   "disgrace"
may       "kinsman"       freed    "peace"         hurn     "corner"
rodder    "heavens"       min      "memory"        tray     "misfortune"
halse     "neck"          tort     "bright"        bisen    "example"
rad       "quick"         lith     "cliff"         flone    "arrow"
feeth     "locomotion"    dern     "hidden"        ever     "boar"
ord       "point"         gome     "man"           ard      "region"
were      "man"           bearend  "bearer"        ech      "eternal"
armth     "poverty"       fold     "earth"         snid     "slice"
arm       "poor"          rail     "clothing"      simble   "festival"
stathel   "foundation"    fax      "hair"          couth    "known"
fouse     "eager"         sax      "dagger"        hold     "loyal"
sell      "hall"          sedge    "man"           wankle   "unstable"
seel      "good"          freming  "purpose"       swime    "vertigo"
sealth    "prosperity"    smicker  "elegant"       teld     "tent"
ent       "giant"         wood     "mad"           bain     "both"
eam       "uncle"         eak      "also"          aste     "kindness
grot      "atom"          shand    "shame"         tharm    "entrail"
thew      "slave"         thring   "to crowd"      thuften  "handmaid"
trod      "a path"        nit      "useful"        chirm    "outcry"
wissing   "instruction"   wiss     "to direct"     wald     "power"
uth       "wave"          eath     "easy"          whoon    "few"


 

[This message has been edited by Essorant (05-24-2006 03:36 PM).]

Essorant
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37 posted 05-23-2006 12:39 PM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant



fack      "interval"      bode     "commandment"   cumble   "banner"
cloam     "mud"           men      "necklace"      corther  "troop"
barm      "bosom"         ben      "wound"         heem     "to marry"
bea       "ring"          wist     "sustenance"    throsm   "smoke"
haft      "captive"       char     "turn"          gidden   "goddess"
swam      "fungus"        shench   "drink"         tiber    "sacrafice"
beed      "table"         been     "prayer"        hean     "lowly"
thank     "thought"       dwild    "error"         gnorn    "sad"
shat      "property"      swoll    "heat"          bin      "within"
balder    "prince"        sid      "custom"        bout     "without"
gadling   "companion"     wold     "forest"        beem     "trumpet"
knostle   "race"          dwelm    "chaos"         sousel   "torment"
fleam     "fleeing"       whelve   "to cover"      tintray  "torment"
atter     "poison'        nake     "boat"          hoff     "house"
lin       "loud sound"    swease   "sweet"         swie     "silence"
meech     "sword"         dwease   "stupid"        queem    "to gratify"
widge     "horse"         havel    "head"          welm     "a welling"
fasten    "fortress"      dretch   "to vex"        hosp     "reproach"
thill     "orator"        frome    "beginning"     hoker    "derision"
throw     "period"        from     "original"      andsake  "enemy"
thave     "to allow"      root     "glad"          orgle    "pride"
thaving   "permission"    stell    "to place"      foken    "deceit"
nift      "neice"         quetch   "to shake"      wye      "battle"
gavel     "tribute"       clip     "to call"       rink     "man"
faw       "variegated"    ea       "river"         sink     "treasure"
beech     "books"         queath   "to say"        quoth    "said"
Essorant
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38 posted 05-26-2006 10:56 PM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant


sloom     "slumber"       eld      "(old) age"      warth    "shore"
hote      "promise"       grure    "horror"         theeden  "chief"
rown      "mystery"       fray     "hearsay"        orth     "breath"
rin       "contact"       dit      "to shut"        waft     "spectacle"
limp      "occurance"     dight    "to arrange"     dey      "breadmaker"
crump     "crooked"       spang    "clasp"          lemman   "darling"
yearn     "eager"         bun      "cup"            shed    "distinction"
hend      "at hand"       birl     "cupbearer"      sheen    "beautiful"
fint      "consequence"   neave    "nephew"         feal     "many"
dursty    "daring'        orped    "keen"           delf     "excavation"
fulst     "help"          rich     "kingdom"        wrake    "revenge"
grame     "rage"          coaf     "strong'         snovel   "mucus"
rud       "blush"         swelm    "pain"           fneeze   "sneeze"
hent      "to sieze"      noat     "utility"        fnore    "snore"
sharn     "dung"          noat     "to use"         fnast    "breath"
frain     "question"      quelm    "to torment'     fnast    "to breathe"
talt      "unsteady"      spreckle "loquacious"     yex      "to belch"
wry       "cover"         springe  "to make spring" staith   "shore"
meath     "measure"       sprank   "a shoot"        britten "to deal out"
holm      "sea"           lire     "flesh"          leer     "cheek"
thrutch   "to crush"      nadder   "snake"          swench   "to vex"
wough     "crooked"       swike    "to deceive"     daven    "to befit"
shuck     "demon"         ream     "noise"          quetch   "to shake"
shend     "to shame"      anfang   "acceptance"     swire    "neck"
shendle   "reproach"      wraught  "accusation"     swip     "whip"
seen      "eyesight"      thickle  "corpulant"      qued     "filth"
yomer     "sad"           wane     "deficiency"     burst    "calamity"
lew       "warm"          loom     "frequent"       bursty   "broken"
weedle    "poverty"       throught "exertion"       lith     "limb"
helster   "hiding-place"  fand     "to try"         yeam     "care"
daw       "to dawn"       galder   "incantation"    yeep     "extensive"
rood      "the cross"     spane    "a teat"         swipper  "cunning"
seave     "spirit"        sench    "to make sink"   curf    "cutting-off"
sake      "to struggle"   brim     "sea"            fere     "companion"
fullwight "baptism"       swark    "to grow dark"   stoven   "treetrunk"
lutter    "pure"          woth     "journey"        list     "hearing"
wear      "fidelity"      wear     "pledge"         room     "spacious"
seech     "to seek"       luther   "wicked"         lear     "to teach"
leared    "learned"       won      "to dwell"       gread    "to shout"
bream     "glorious"      tine     "to enclose"     ferk     "to assist"
swive  "to copulate with" bern     "man"            ere      "before"
erst      "first"         shulken  "female servant" wriels   "covering"
erve     "inheritance"    arveth   "difficulty"     leed     "man"
weel     "whirlpool"      cheast   "strife"         o        "ever"



  



[This message has been edited by Essorant (05-28-2006 10:27 PM).]

Essorant
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39 posted 06-09-2006 01:36 PM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant


lote     "fraud"          snead    "to cut"         threst   "to writhe"
shrit    "hermaphrodite"  shill    "to seperate"    thurse   "giant"
houve    "head-covering"  dook  "illegitimate son"  how      "care"
rane     "whale"          dism     "vapour"         hool     "calumny"
sw-anker  "slender"       rith     "fever"          hover    "hump"
shrench  "to make shrink" link     "ridge"          hovered  "humpbacked"
houth    "plunder"        looth    "troop"          bide     "hesitation"
stith    "stiff"          wharft   "revolution"     loke     "gift"
tweem    "divide in two"  bud      "beetle"         thrack   "force"
thelm    "noose"          pud      "ditch"          kemb     "to comb"
thell    "plank"          prat     "trick"          fneer    "to sneer"
sweem    "trifler"        shrim    "to shrink"      fnort    "to snort"
sweer    "vexed"          swone    "swineherd"      ickle    "icicle"
lean     "reward"         nicker   "watersprite"    stean    "jug"
droof    "dirty"          shab     "scab"           shold    "shoal"
thingth  "intercession"   smeath   "meditation"     splot    "spot"
leap     "basket"         threshel "flail"          swealth  "burning"
thoft    "comrade"        stight   "to arrange"     till     "good"
thoe     "clay"           thost    "dung"           smeat    "pure"
lease    "devoid (of)"    torve    "to throw"       slittle  "pungent"
drought  "lifestyle"  rither/rother "bovine-beast"  smake   "to flatter"
droughten "to behave"     graft    "carved thing"   wand    "to hesitate"
teal     "(to) blame"     mig      "urine"          wand     "hesitation"
teanel   "wicker basket"  tone     "twig"           waple    "to bubble"
thother  "ball"           rime     "number"         lathe    "to invite"
threap   "to reprove"     thrave   "to reprove"     coker    "quiver"
slay     "slaughter"      trendle  "sphere"         thave    "supporter"
hode     "condition"      weed     "madness"        weed  "to become mad"
bold     "house"          thungen  "excellent"      throw "space of time"
streal   "arrow"          roop     "clamour"        rouse    "earth"
reeth    "victory"        thack    "roof"           mear     "famous"
mearth   "glory"          holse    "salvation"      hame     "covering"
hane     "cock"           leanse   "to make lean"   thrist   "daring"
  




Note: the dash in the word sw-anker is added to get around the word filter that kept interpreting it as an inappropriate word!.

[This message has been edited by Essorant (06-10-2006 12:55 PM).]

The Shadow in Blue
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40 posted 06-09-2006 10:35 PM       View Profile for The Shadow in Blue   Email The Shadow in Blue   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit The Shadow in Blue's Home Page   View IP for The Shadow in Blue

Umm...Holy Crap!...I never realized there was so much debate on whether we should have a strictly "American dictionary" because as stated before no matter where you are there are influences from other lands imposed on our languages. And I personally think that the more integrated languages are the more unity our world has. Because if you can become more "together" and a melting pot then the better we as a people can be.

For example if we all can unite/integrate in a common thing-like language or in a extreme-government then the world would be a better place.

It might be a bad example but I'm just saying that reverting back to old english from the middle ages and beyond would be...well downright...ludicrous.

But that is just one person's opinion

/\/The Editing Queen\/\

It's strange that words are so inadequate. Yet, like the asthmatic struggling for breath, so the lover must struggle for wo
Essorant
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41 posted 06-11-2006 11:46 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

I think diversity is sometimes good thing.  But so is preservation and restoration wherever possible.  
Essorant
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42 posted 06-14-2006 12:25 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

Strong Verbs.


Many of the strong verbs were forgotten or confused in English.  But it is by no means impossible to remember them again and unconfuse and regain as many of them as possible.  Below are about 175 examples of what I mean:

Present                      Past
 



(Class I)
 


wite    "to go"         wote        witten
bite    "to bite"       bote        bitten
slite   "to slit"       slote       slitten
flite   "to dispute"    flote       flitten
lite    "to gaze"       lote        litten
nite    "to knock"      note        nitten
thwite  "to hew"        thwote      thwitten
shite   "to defecate"   shote       shitten
drite   "to defecate"   drote       dritten
atwite  "to reproach"   atwote      atwitten
knide   "to beat"       knode       knidden
glide   "to glide"      glode       glidden
slide   "to slide"      slode       slidden
gnide   "to rub"        gnode       gnidden
lide    "to cover"      lode        lidden
swive   "to swive"      swove       swiven
belive  "to remain"     belove      beliven
toslive "to split"      toslove     tosliven
gripe   "to seize"      grope       grippen
ripe    "to reap"       rope        rippen
nipe    "to darken"     nope        nippen
swike   "to abandon"    swoke       swicken
blike   "to shine"      bloke       blicken
sike    "to sigh"       soke        sicken
snike   "to sneak"      snoke       snicken
whine   "to whine"      whone       whinen
rine    "to touch"      rone        rinen
chine   "to crack"      chone       chinen
yine    "to yawn"       yone        yinen
thwine  "to grow"       thwone      thwinen
dwine   "to dwindle"    dwone       dwinen
aquine  "to diminish"   aquone      aquinen
mithe   "to avoid"      mothe       mithen
writhe  "to twist"      wrothe      writhen
lithe   "to go"         lothe       lidden
snithe  "to cut"        snothe      snidden
shrithe "to glide"      shrothe     shridden
agrise  "to be afraid"  agrose      agrisen
stie    "to ascend"     stoe        stien
 



(Class II)
 


leese     "to lose"      lose        lorn
forleese  "to forlose"   forlose     forlorn
freeze    "to freeze"    froze       frorn
dreeze    "to fall"      droze       drorn
reeze     "to fall"      roze        rorn
creep     "to creep"     crope       cropen
beed      "to command"   bode        bodden
reed      "to adorn"     rode        rodden
leed      "to grow"      lode        lodden
neet      "to use"       note        notten
breet     "to break"     brote       brotten
fleet     "to float"     flote       flotten
greet     "to weep"      grote       grotten
leet      "to cast lots" lote        lotten
spreet    "to sprout"    sprote      sprotten
theet     "to howl"      thote       thotten
athreet   "to tire"      athrote     athrotten
smeek     "to smoke"     smoke       smoken
reek      "to smoke"     roke        roken
seethe    "to seathe"    sothe       sodden
luck      "to lock"      loke        loken
suck      "to suck"      soke        soken
sup       "to sup"       sope        sopen
brew      "to brew"      brow        brown
chew      "to chew"      chow        chown
choose    "to choose"    chose       coren
                               (also corn)
 

(Class III)
 



thind     "to swell"     thound   thounden
rind      "to push"      round    rounden


thring    "to throng"    thrang   thrungen
cring     "to fall"      crang    crungen
swink     "to toil"      swank    swunken
lin       "to desist"    lan      lunen
spin      "to spin"      span     spunen
lim       "to resound"   lam      lumen
crim      "to cram"      cram     crumen
shrim     "to shrink"    shram    shrumen
limp      "to happen"    lamp     lumpen
rimp      "to wrinkle"   ramp     rumpen
climb     "to climb"     clamb    clumben
                  (also  clomb    clomben)
burn      "to burn"      barn     burnen


melt      "to melt"      malt     molten
swelt     "to die"       swalt    swolten
delve     "to delve"     dalve    dolven
swell     "to swell"     swall    swollen
bell      "to bellow"    ball     bollen
yell      "to yell"      yall     yollen
help      "to help"      halp     holpen


yield     "to yield"     yold     yolden
smart     "to smart"     smort    smorten
swarve    "to polish"    sworve   sworven
carve     "to carve"     corve    corven
sharve    "to gnaw"      shorve   shorven
wharve    "to turn"      whorve   whorven
starve    "to starve"    storve   storven
darve     "to labour"    dorve    dorven
swark     "to darken"    swork    sworken
bark      "to bark"      bork     borken
yarr      "to sound"     yorr     yorren


asilk     "to slacken"   asalk    asolken


burst     "to burst"     barst    borsten
thresh    "to thresh"    thrash   throshen
mourn     "to mourn"     marn     mornen
spurn     "to spurn"     sparn    spornen


worth     "to become"    warth    worden
                            (also worthen )

thee      "to thrive"    thoe     thungen
 



(Class IV)
 


thwear    "to stir"      thwore   thworen
                           (also  thworn)
heal      "to conceal"   hole     holen
queal     "to die"       quole    quolen
nim       "to take"      name     numen
 

(Class V)
 



sit       "to sit"       sate     seaten
                  (also  sat   setten/sitten )
mete      "to mete"      mate     meten
freat     "to for-eat"   frate    freaten
(also fret)  
queath    "to say"       quath    queathen
               (also  quoth/quod  quothen )
dreep     "to slay"      drape    dreepen
                  (also  drope    dropen)
kneed     "to kneed"     knade    kneeden
sweve     "to sleep"     swave    sweven
speak     "to speak"     spake    speaken
                  (also  spoke    spoken)
break     "to break"     brake    breaken
                  (also  broke    broken)
wreak     "to wreak"     wrake    wreaken
                  (also  wroke    wroken)
weave     "to weave"     wave     weaven
                  (also  wove     woven)
tread     "to tread"     trade    treaden
               (also trode/trod   troden/trodden)
shreep    "to scrape"    scrape   shreepen
lease     "to glean"     lase     leasen
nease     "to be saved"  nase     neasen
 

(Class VI)
 


fare      "to fare"      foor/fore      faren
ache      "to ache"      ooche/oche     achen
bake      "to bake"      book/boke      baken
grave     "to dig"       groove/grove   graven
shave     "to shave"     shoove/shove   shaven
lade      "to lade"      lood/lode      laden
cale      "to be cold"   cool/cole      calen
gale      "to sing"      gool/gole      galen
spane     "to allure"    spoon/spone    spanen
wade      "to go"        wood/wode      waden
wash      "to wash"      woosh/wosh     washen
heave     "to heave"     hoove/hove     heaven
                               (also  hoven)
shape     "to shape"     shoop/shope    shapen
step      "to step"      stoop/stope    stapen
                               (also  stopen)
wax       "to grow"      wox            waxen
shathe    "to scathe"    shood/shode    shathen
gnaw      "to gnaw"      gnew           gnawn
thway     "to wash"      thwew          thwain
 



(Class VII)
 



hote      "to call"       hight         hoten
shed      "to shed"       sheed         shoden
let       "to let"        let           letten
fang      "to seize"      feng          fangen
gang      "to go"         geng          gangen
bland     "to mix"        blend         blanden
ban       "to summon"     been          banen
span      "to join"       speen         spanen
loke      "to play"       leek          laken
walk      "to walk"       welk          walken
salt      "to salt"       selt          salten
wall      "to boil"       well          wallen
wax       "to grow"       wex           waxen
hold      "to hold"       held          holden
fold      "to fold"       feld          folden
wold      "to wield"      weld          wolden
stold     "to have"       steld         stolden
bloot     "to sacrifice"  bleet         blooten
wroot     "to root up"    wreet         wrooten
whoop     "to threaten"   wheep         whoopen
roop      "to shout"      reep          roopen
flook     "to clap"       fleek         flooken
swoop     "to sweep"      sweep         swoopen
crow      "to crow"       crew          crown
wow       "to blow"       wew           wown
mow       "to mow"        mew           mown
sow       "to sow"        sew           sown
glow      "to glow"       glew          glown
flow      "to flow"       flew          flown
low       "to low"        lew           lown
row       "to row"        rew           rown
spow      "to succeed"    spew          spown
swough    "to swough"     sweigh        swoon
 
The Shadow in Blue
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43 posted 06-16-2006 04:57 PM       View Profile for The Shadow in Blue   Email The Shadow in Blue   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit The Shadow in Blue's Home Page   View IP for The Shadow in Blue

I agree with you on preservation of one nation's identity, but at some point in your life it is harder to adapt to a different style of language or anything else for that matter. If the school systems taught the younger kids this type of old english then it would be easier to incorporate, but for me I just can't seem to completely jump ship to this form of english.
Essorant
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44 posted 06-22-2007 02:52 AM       View Profile for Essorant   Email Essorant   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems   Click to visit Essorant's Home Page   View IP for Essorant

I have been working on and off this project for a few months, and recently felt well enough to give it its own seat on the internet.  

If you have time, take a look at www.ednewenglish.com  .

rwood
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Tennessee


45 posted 06-22-2007 11:28 AM       View Profile for rwood   Email rwood   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems  View IP for rwood

Ess~ I think you're marvelous.

I love languages and learning about them. Preservation is very cool, in my eyes, though I do accept other ideas as well. Balance is important to me so I can communicate, or what's the sense in knowing a word that no one knows and it poses as a communication barrier. We can educate people, but in my experience, some people don't want to be educated, they just want to chat. You know? Andgitan, annehmen, comprendre, comprender, capire, etcētera.

Incidentally, I know you mentioned Germanic tribes as being a source of our English. There were so many of them, but I believe they evolved from the Celts, so the term Germanic, is not an original term, but a derived one from the Celtic language, I think. I'm just recalling some history classes here and that's been a while, but you may want to check that out.

Parts of your thread reminded me of the father Gus in the movie, My Big Fat Greek Wedding:

"Give me a word, any word, and I show you that the root of that word is Greek."

"You know, the root of the word Miller is a Greek word. Miller come from the Greek word "milo," which is mean "apple," so there you go. As many of you know, our name, Portokalos, is come from the Greek word "portokali," which mean "orange." So, okay? Here tonight, we have, ah, apple and orange. We all different, but in the end, we all fruit."

I try to have a dictionary handy that shows the etymology which helps me to develop my skills in writing, my vocabulary, and my word comprehension. Needless to say, I'll never be perfect and I'll never be able to say I'm done.
rwood
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46 posted 06-22-2007 12:05 PM       View Profile for rwood   Email rwood   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems  View IP for rwood

P.S.

Impressive site!

What about "nigh". I see you listed "nigh + bour= neighbor, but just "nigh". I've seen people use this word often in modern poetry, but I feel they misuse it to mean No instead of close or approaching.

I look forward to all you add there and studying what you do have.

Kudos to you Ess!
oceanvu2
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47 posted 06-22-2007 12:35 PM       View Profile for oceanvu2   Email oceanvu2   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems  View IP for oceanvu2

Ah, the trumpetting of swans! (Which, as Ess micht ken, is a play on two words of ME
origin.) ((Which parenthetical remark plays with ME and Sots dialect.))) (((etc.)))

Gotta run. I'm off to the taco stand for a breakfast burrito.

Best, Jim
rwood
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48 posted 06-22-2007 02:39 PM       View Profile for rwood   Email rwood   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems  View IP for rwood

Jim, on (what) kind of dialect?

Laughing wildly here.

Actually, that's perfect. Sots have a dialect completely of their own and the origin of the brew may have a slight influence on inflection?

you're too funny.

oceanvu2
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49 posted 06-22-2007 04:36 PM       View Profile for oceanvu2   Email oceanvu2   Edit/Delete Message      Find Poems  View IP for oceanvu2

Hi Regina!  Actually, the use of "Sots" ME, was intentional, being, as you saw, a play on Scots (allusion suggested by the use of Scottish dialect) and Scotts are noted tipplers, ME.

The etc. in the final set of paren's, BE,  or "Butchered English," was meant to suggest anyone could go on and on this way.

As in, a "tippler" ME, is also one who engages in "tippling,"  ME, or dumping coal into a carriage.  Thus, a drunken miner readily be called a "tippling tippler," which in turn leads to associations of "tippling" and "carriage," ME.

Etc. (from the Latin)

I offer the above liittle exegis because, I think, one is not supposed to be "funny" in Philosophy 101 and I wanted to assure all that my comments were deathly, ME, serious.

The remark about "going to the taco stand for a breakfast burrito" is equally germane, German Origin, as it addresses the discussion concerning the use of "foreign," FO, or Foreign Origin, words in the English language, particularly if it is a pastrami and egg breakfast burrito.  As far as I can tell, there are no direct English correlatives for "taco," "burrito" or "pastrami,"  making it extremely difficult for the English only speaker to order in four out of five Los Angeles area restaurants.

Sombreroly,  Jim

PS:  Does this thread remind anyone else of Swift's dialogue of the relative merits of Big Enders vs. Little Enders?

PPS:  "Sots" was really a fortuitous typo, the kind of misteak I rarely meak.

JDA

[This message has been edited by oceanvu2 (06-22-2007 08:15 PM).]

 
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