Statesboro, GA, USA
the Ten commandments were the recorded form of God's law to his people (the Israelites). However, the New Testament, especially in the book of Romans, tells us that God's law is revealed in a more universal way. He has written his law "on our hearts", whether Jewish or not. The case for God's law being reflected through the human conscience, and through societal laws, is pretty strong. There are of course differences between the ethical rules of varying groups of people, but the differences are small when compared to the similarities. As C.S. Lewis once observed, there is no known group of people where cowardice is admired, or where betrayal is applauded. And where those abberations seem to exist, they are usually justified by another point of the moral law ... ie, they are defended by being thought of as exceptions. No society ever thought it was okay to despise your friends, though some have justified that it's okay to despise your enemies (on the premise of just punishment, etc...).
Jesus also summed up the nature of God's law by saying that it amounted to "Loving the Lord your God with all your heart, soul, mind, and strength ... and loving your neighbor as yourself".
When it comes to the question of whether sin is intent or action ... it's easy to make the distinction in discussion. But that distinction isn't often there in real situations. Seldom can evil thinking go on too long without some manifestation in willful action. And few actions ever take place without some level of intelligent intent. That's why Jesus also said, "Out of the overflow of the heart, the mouth speaks". Likewise, out of the overflow of the heart, the hand moves, the feet walk, the eye winks, the lip sneers, etc ... etc ... So it doesn't seem to be "either/ or", but "both/ and".