Jejudo, South Korea
Here is a quick run down of my simplistic/reductionist views of philosophy from Descart. I reserve the right to change my mind and to be completely arbitrary. Actually, wouldn't mind help in changing my mind.
Descart -- unified self because I think.
Kant -- impossiblity of sense certainty, of seeing and describing the world from self.
Hegel -- idealism -- of realizing the above two, of combining them and arguing the historical development of 'geist' or spirit in the unfolding of speculative thought. Spirit as truth, not as God.
Marx -- materialism -- reversal of Hegel. Man develops in a history that creates speculative thought, creates spirit, not the other way around. "Men make history but they do not make it exactly as they choose."
Nietsche (or Smith ) -- Truth is the product of power relations, of the assertions of individuals. We have given the name "will to truth" for what is actually the "will to power".
Heidegger -- the deconstruction of essence. Existance and essence are the same thing. We are alienated from the world because we have moved away from the discovery of the world to the world as potential use.
Derrida -- Believes Heidegger was right but didn't do what he said he was doing. Focuses on deconstruction of commonly received ideas in philosophy but holds out for a future-to-come. It is, however, an unpredictable future. Believes 'justice' is ultimately undeconstructable.
I'll stop there.
Feel free to attack away (this was a lot harder to do than you think and I know most of these are easily and rightly debateable.)